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disease-causing organisms

1st line of defense (non-specific)

prevent pathogens from entering cells


the first few layers of cells are dead and cannot be invaded; the living cells are small and tightly connected to each other.


is a secretion of the epithelial cells that line the respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive tracts. Mucus traps pathogens. In the respiratory tract, cilia on the epithelial cells, sweep the mucus to the throat, where it is swallowed.


hydrochloric acid in the stomach kills pathogens


enzyme in tears and saliva that can lyse bacterial cell walls

trap or block dust with pathogens

nasal hairs, eyelashes, earwax, etc.

2nd line of defense (non-specific)

mechanisms that reduce pathogen growth or destroy pathogens that enter the cells

inflammatory responses

the release of histamines by mast cells that cause itchiness, fluid leaking from capillaries, and an increase in blood flow to the area

mast cells

a type of white blood cell fixed in tracts and in epithelial tissue


is the body's response to pathogen invasion; elevated temperature can slow bacterial growth and speed activity of white blood cell's

phagocitic cells (such as macrophages)

are fixed in the lungs and lymph vessels that engulf pathogens and foreign materials


chemical made by body cells infected with viruses to help nearby cells resist invasion by those viruses.

3rd line of defense (specific)

how the immune response occurs.

Macrophage engulfs a pathogen and displays the foreign antigens on its cell membrane receptors.

step 1

Many versions of helper T cells are floating in the blood.

step 2

The correct helper T cell bind to the activated macrophage; the activated helper T cell releases growth chemicals.

step 3

The activated helper T cell bind to the correct B cell.

step 4a

The correct B cells divide to produce plasma cells that will then release antibodies.

step 4b

Some B cells differentiate to long lived memory B cells.

step 4c

Chemicals from helper T cells cause Cytotoxic T cells to divide. These kill infective body cells with chemicals (perforins).

step 5

The antigen-antibody complex, the dead body cell, and the dead WBC's will be engulfed by macrophages.

step 6

Memory B cells and antibodies will remain in the blood to confer immunity.

step 7


a protein on the surface of a pathogen or a body cell that is recognized by immune system cells.

nucleic acid core; protein; capsid

A virus is made of a _________ (center) and a _______coat called a ______.

viral nucleic acids; viral cells

A virus' nucleic acid codes for making more __________ and ____________.

lytic cycle

the life cycle exhibited by a virus which is causing an infection.


a virus needs to invade a host cell to use the cell's _________ as a site for protein synthesis.


a virus is NOT considered alive because it is not made of _______.

antibodies; our cells don't have cell walls

bacteria are pathogens which can be killed by medications called _________ because most of these medications work by destroying the cell walls of bacteria. These medications do not hurt our cells because ________________________.

measles, mumps, rubella

three examples of virus caused human diseases

staphylococcus, salmonella, cholera

three examples of bacteria caused human diseases


Helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, plasma cells, macrophages and memory B cells are a few types of _________.


a Y shaped protein specific to an antigen

plasma cells

produce antibodies

helper T cells

become activated when they bind to an activated macrophage

memory B cell

long-lived cells that are specific to an antigen of a pathogen

B cell

a cell type that is stimulated to divide when it recognizes an activated helper T cell

cytotoxic T cells

cell type that kill infected body cells

HCl; defense 1

the chemical in stomach fluid which kills bacteria

lysozyme; defense 1

a chemical in tears and saliva which destroys bacterial cell walls

phagocitic cells; defense 2

large blood cells which circulate in the lungs or in the lymph nodes, and in the fluid between cells that engulf pathogens

immune response; defense 3

the production of antibodies against a specific pathogen

histamines; defense 2

chemicals made by mast cells in response to allergens or pathogens; they cause the inflammatory response

fever; defense 2

the elevation of body temperature


if the nucleic acid of a virus is RNA then the virus is a __________.


Before the viral genome can be incorporated into the host cell, it must first convert its ____ to ____. (for retrovirus)

nonliving; cells

Viruses are _______ because they can only reproduce inside living _____.


Viruses are _____ than bacteria.

lytic cycle

cell immediatly begins producing virus particles upon infection.

lysogenic cycle

the viral DNA is incorporated into the host's DNA and the viral DNA will not be "turned on" until triggered by a later conditions.

thymus gland

T cells mature in the _________.

bone marrow

B cells mature in the _______.

active immunity

when the body produces its own antibodies against an antigen.

natural active immunity

a pathogen enters the body, infection occurs, and the immune response follows

lifelong protection

natural active immunity results in _____.

artificial active immunity

a vaccine stimulates the body to produce antibodies and memory B cells

decades of protection

artificial active immunity results in _____.

passive immunity

antibodies are received from another source (made elsewhere)

natural passive immunity

antibodies passed from mother to unborn child or in the milk

temporary protection for a few weeks

natural passive immunity results in __________.

artificial passive immunity

receiving an injection of antibodies specific to an antigen (such as antivenom)

autoimmune disease

occurs when the body's immune system begins to attack its own cells in a case of mistaken identity.

lupus, rheumatic fever, multiple sclerosis

three examples of autoimmune diseases

Edward Jenner

first made a vaccine against smallpox and introduced the word virus.

Louis Pasteur

discovered the most infectious disease.


a person who studies the structural and functional changes cause by disease.


the scientist who figures out what causes a certain disease and why some people get the disease while others don't. Then they tell people how to prevent it.


the introduction of biological material into a medium.


the maintenance of microbiological cultures at specific temperatures for a given time.

culture medium

a substance on or in which microorganisms and other small organisms can be cultured.

Koch's postulate

text that demonstrates the cause and effect relationship between specific bacterium and the disease it caused.

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