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An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of


A test designed to assess whether newly graduated medical students should be granted the legal right to practice medicine would most likely be considered a(n) ________ test.


When retested on the WAIS, people's second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of


If course exams assess a student's mastery of a representative sample of course material, they are said to

have content validity.

Comparing the academic performance of those whose scores are extremely low on intelligence tests with those whose scores are extremely high is an effective way to highlight the tests'


Before publishing her test of musical aptitude, Professor Reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. This was most clearly necessary for test


Mary's bathroom scale always overstates people's actual weight by exactly six pounds. The scale has ________ reliability and ________ validity

high; low

University grades are used to assess the ________ of the SAT.

predictive validity

A performance score on the WAIS that is higher than all but 2 percent of all scores earns an intelligence score of


A 6-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency typical of an average 9-year-old was said to have a mental age of


Children at 20 months of age who spoke sentences typical of 3-year-olds ________ especially likely to be reading by age 4-and-a-half. Eighth-graders who outperformed most high schoolers on a college aptitude test ________ especially likely to be reading by age 5.

were not, were

Some hereditarians have been fearful that higher twentieth-century birth rates among those with lower intelligence scores would shove average intelligence scores progressively downward. This fear has been most directly alleviated by the discovery of

the Flynn effect

The first modern test of intelligence was developed in


A high school counselor gave Amy a test designed to predict whether she could learn to become a successful architect. Amy most likely took a(n) ________ test.


Babies in an Iranian orphanage suffered delayed intellectual development due to

a deprived environment

Research suggests that women are more skilled than men at

interpreting others' facial expressions of emotion.

Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult ________ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult ________ test.

math problem-solving; verbal fluency

Research on racial and ethnic differences in intelligence indicates that

the average mathematics achievement test scores of Asian children are higher than those of North American children.

The intelligence test scores of adopted children are LEAST likely to be positively correlated with the scores of their adoptive siblings during

early adulthood

When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates

belief perservance

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of

the representativeness heuristic.

Because he erroneously believes that older workers are not as motivated as younger workers to work hard, a factory foreman is especially vigilant for any signs of laziness among his senior workers. His supervision strategy best illustrates

confirmation bias.

Arnold had difficulty recognizing that bullfighting was a sport because it failed to resemble his ________ of a sport.


Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit


In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of

a heuristic

In her research, Professor Kyoto seeks to identify circumstances in which confirmation bias is especially likely to impede effective problem solving. Which specialty area does her research best represent?

cognitive psychology

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates

functional fixedness

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of

an algorithm

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of

the availability heuristic.

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates

belief preseverance

Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize that the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max's oversight best illustrates


Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of


We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.


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