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63 terms

Male and Female Reproductive System Sbrocchi

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Pituitary Gland
master gland of the body that controls hormone secretion and produces FSH
Hormones
regulate the reproductive system and act as messengers throughout the body, causing cells to act in certain ways
FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)
travels to gonads and signals the onset of puberty
Puberty
stage in human growth where reproductive hormones begin to affect us
Primary Function of MRS
to produce as many sperm as possible
Testosterone
male reproductive hormone that allows secondary sexual characteristics to develop (hair growth, voice change, etc.)
FSH in Males
reaches testes during puberty and causes the development of sperm cells
Sperm
male reproductive cell that has a very short lifespan- contains 23 chromosomes
Sperm Head
contains chemicals that allow the head to enter the egg cell
Testes
reproductive organs in the male
Scrotum
keeps the testes cool because it is located outside the body
Seminiferous Tubules
where sperm cells are produced in the testes
Epididymis
stores sperm cell until they are ready to leave
Vas Deferens
tube that takes sperm to the urethra
Prostate Gland
produces fluid that is added to the sperm cells to help it move
Seminal Vesicles
produces fluid that is rich in sugars and provides energy for the sperm to swim
Urethra
tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the bladder and joins with the vas deferens
Bladder
organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted
Penis
external male reproductive organ
FSH in Females
reaches the ovaries and mature eggs are released
Estrogen
female reproductive hormone that allows for the development of secondary sexual characteristics to develop (hips, breasts, hair growth, etc.)
Ovum
female reproductive cells- are much larger than sperm- contains 23 chromosomes
Oogenesis
the process that forms eggs in the female
Ovaries
where the eggs are produces
Follicles
fluid-filled cavity on the surface, each containing an egg that is released one at a time during ovulation
Oviducts/Fallopian Tubes
guides eggs to tube and is the site of ovulation
Uterus
where a fertilized egg develops into a fetus
Cervix
lower entrance of the uterus
Vagina
muscular passageway also called the birth canal
Fertilization
when a sperm penetrates an egg cell- barrier put up to prevent other sperm from entering
Zygote
combination of egg and sperm- fertilized egg- that moves down towards uterus
Cleavage
rapid cell divisions which occur on the way to the uterus
Blastocyst
a mass of cells arranged in a hollow ball that arrives at the uterous
Placenta
formed from outer cells of a blastocyst which nourish the fetus
Gastrula
embryo after 14 days of development
Germ Layer
three layer in which cells specialize into
Endoderm
inner; will form the lung and lining of the digestive tract
Mesoderm
middle; will form the kidneys, skeleton, muscles, blood vessels and gonads
Ectoderm
outer; forms the skin and nervous system
Trimester
3 months of pregnancy- the first is critical to fetal development
Fetus
a developing embryo from the ninth week of development until birth- shares blood of the mother
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
alcohol consumption by mother may cause improper development of liver and can affect the fetus' brain, neural and physical development
Effects of Cigarette Smoke
contracts the fetus' blood vessels causing a decrease in the fetus' oxygen intake; fetus is usually underweight at birth
Genetic Disorders
abnormal chromosome number- not 46; chances of this occurring increase with age of mother
Fertilization
the union of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell (aka. conception) and results in a Zygote
Implantation
the attachment of zygote to the uterine wall and results in an embryo
Embryo
the developing child from the time of implantation until about the eighth week of development
Fetus
the developing embryo in the uterus (name given after about the eighth week of development)
Amniotic Sac
a thin, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing embryo
Umbilical Cord
a rope-like structure that connects the empryo and the mother's placenta
Placenta
the thick blood-red tissue that lines the uterine walls during pregnancy and nourishes the embryo
Labour
the final stage of pregnancy in which the uterus contracts and pushes the baby out of the mother's body
Prenatal Care
steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and for the health of her baby
Physical
blood tests and pelvic exam
Prenatal Visits
include a complete physical, an ultrasound and the obstetrician monitors the weight and blood pressure of the mother
Effects of Tobacco
higher rates of miscarriage, stillbirths, premature births and low birth weight and can affect growth, mental development and behaviour
Precautions to Taking Medication
get the approval of a doctor or another qualified health care provider before taking medication of any kind
Effects of Illegal Drugs
can make mother less able to support the pregnancy, cause birth defects, premature labour, miscarriage and the baby can be addicted to the drug from birth
Environmental Hazards
lead, smog, radiation, cat litter
Miscarriage
spontaneous expulsion of a fetus that occurs before the twentieth week of pregnancy
Stillbirth
a dead fetus expelled from the body after the twentieth week of pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy
results when the zygote implants in the fallopian tube, abdomen, ovary or the cervix when an egg cannot pass to the uterus because of tissue inflammation or scar tissue has developed due to STIs
Preeclampsia
prevents placenta from getting enough blood which results in low birth weight, high blood pressure, swelling and large amounts of protein in the urine