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Pituitary Gland

master gland of the body that controls hormone secretion and produces FSH


regulate the reproductive system and act as messengers throughout the body, causing cells to act in certain ways

FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone)

travels to gonads and signals the onset of puberty


stage in human growth where reproductive hormones begin to affect us

Primary Function of MRS

to produce as many sperm as possible


male reproductive hormone that allows secondary sexual characteristics to develop (hair growth, voice change, etc.)

FSH in Males

reaches testes during puberty and causes the development of sperm cells


male reproductive cell that has a very short lifespan- contains 23 chromosomes

Sperm Head

contains chemicals that allow the head to enter the egg cell


reproductive organs in the male


keeps the testes cool because it is located outside the body

Seminiferous Tubules

where sperm cells are produced in the testes


stores sperm cell until they are ready to leave

Vas Deferens

tube that takes sperm to the urethra

Prostate Gland

produces fluid that is added to the sperm cells to help it move

Seminal Vesicles

produces fluid that is rich in sugars and provides energy for the sperm to swim


tube leading from the bladder to the outside of the bladder and joins with the vas deferens


organ that stores urine until it is ready to be excreted


external male reproductive organ

FSH in Females

reaches the ovaries and mature eggs are released


female reproductive hormone that allows for the development of secondary sexual characteristics to develop (hips, breasts, hair growth, etc.)


female reproductive cells- are much larger than sperm- contains 23 chromosomes


the process that forms eggs in the female


where the eggs are produces


fluid-filled cavity on the surface, each containing an egg that is released one at a time during ovulation

Oviducts/Fallopian Tubes

guides eggs to tube and is the site of ovulation


where a fertilized egg develops into a fetus


lower entrance of the uterus


muscular passageway also called the birth canal


when a sperm penetrates an egg cell- barrier put up to prevent other sperm from entering


combination of egg and sperm- fertilized egg- that moves down towards uterus


rapid cell divisions which occur on the way to the uterus


a mass of cells arranged in a hollow ball that arrives at the uterous


formed from outer cells of a blastocyst which nourish the fetus


embryo after 14 days of development

Germ Layer

three layer in which cells specialize into


inner; will form the lung and lining of the digestive tract


middle; will form the kidneys, skeleton, muscles, blood vessels and gonads


outer; forms the skin and nervous system


3 months of pregnancy- the first is critical to fetal development


a developing embryo from the ninth week of development until birth- shares blood of the mother

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

alcohol consumption by mother may cause improper development of liver and can affect the fetus' brain, neural and physical development

Effects of Cigarette Smoke

contracts the fetus' blood vessels causing a decrease in the fetus' oxygen intake; fetus is usually underweight at birth

Genetic Disorders

abnormal chromosome number- not 46; chances of this occurring increase with age of mother


the union of a male sperm cell and a female egg cell (aka. conception) and results in a Zygote


the attachment of zygote to the uterine wall and results in an embryo


the developing child from the time of implantation until about the eighth week of development


the developing embryo in the uterus (name given after about the eighth week of development)

Amniotic Sac

a thin, fluid-filled membrane that surrounds and protects the developing embryo

Umbilical Cord

a rope-like structure that connects the empryo and the mother's placenta


the thick blood-red tissue that lines the uterine walls during pregnancy and nourishes the embryo


the final stage of pregnancy in which the uterus contracts and pushes the baby out of the mother's body

Prenatal Care

steps that a pregnant female can take to provide for her own health and for the health of her baby


blood tests and pelvic exam

Prenatal Visits

include a complete physical, an ultrasound and the obstetrician monitors the weight and blood pressure of the mother

Effects of Tobacco

higher rates of miscarriage, stillbirths, premature births and low birth weight and can affect growth, mental development and behaviour

Precautions to Taking Medication

get the approval of a doctor or another qualified health care provider before taking medication of any kind

Effects of Illegal Drugs

can make mother less able to support the pregnancy, cause birth defects, premature labour, miscarriage and the baby can be addicted to the drug from birth

Environmental Hazards

lead, smog, radiation, cat litter


spontaneous expulsion of a fetus that occurs before the twentieth week of pregnancy


a dead fetus expelled from the body after the twentieth week of pregnancy

Ectopic Pregnancy

results when the zygote implants in the fallopian tube, abdomen, ovary or the cervix when an egg cannot pass to the uterus because of tissue inflammation or scar tissue has developed due to STIs


prevents placenta from getting enough blood which results in low birth weight, high blood pressure, swelling and large amounts of protein in the urine

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