Depreciation, depletion, and amortization all involve the allocation of the cost of a long-lived asset to expense
The three factors involved in the depreciation process are the depreciation base, the useful life, and the risk of obsolescence
The major objection to the straight-line method is that it assumes the asset's economic usefulness and repair expense are the same each year
The units-of-production approach to depreciation is appropriate when depreciation is a function of time instead of activity
An accelerated depreciation method is appropriate when the asset's economic usefulness is the same each year
The declining-balance method does not deduct the salvage value in computing the depreciation base
Gains or losses on disposals of assets do not distort periodic income when the group or composite method is used to compute depreciation
Companies frequently use the composite approach when the assets are similar in nature and have approximately the same useful lives
Changes in estimates are handled prospectively by dividing the asset's book value less any salvage value by the remaining estimated life
An impairment loss is the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the sum of the expected future net cash flows from the use of that asset
The first step in determining whether an impairment has occurred is to estimate the future net cash flows expected from the use of that asset and its eventual disposition
Impaired assets held for disposal should be reported at the lower of cost or net realizable value
The profit margin on sales ratio is a measure for analyzing the use of property, plant, and equipment
The following is true of depreciation accounting.
a. It is not a matter of valuation.
b. It is part of the matching of revenues and expenses.
c. It retains funds by reducing income taxes and dividends.
d. All of these.
Which of the following principles best describes the conceptual rationale for the methods of matching depreciation expense with revenues?
a. Associating cause and effect
b. Systematic and rational allocation
c. Immediate recognition
d. Partial recognition
a. provides funds.
b. funds replacements.
c. retains funds.
d. all of these.
Which of the following most accurately reflects the concept of depreciation as used in accounting?
a. The process of charging the decline in value of an economic resource to income in the period in which the benefit occurred.
b. The process of allocating the cost of tangible assets to expense in a systematic and rational manner to those periods expected to benefit from the use of the asset.
c. A method of allocating asset cost to an expense account in a manner which closely matches the physical deterioration of the tangible asset involved.
d. An accounting concept that allocates the portion of an asset used up during the year to the contra asset account for the purpose of properly recording the fair market value of tangible assets.
The major difference between the service life of an asset and its physical life is that
a. service life refers to the time an asset will be used by a company and physical life refers to how long the asset will last.
b. physical life is the life of an asset without consideration of salvage value and service life requires the use of salvage value.
c. physical life is always longer than service life.
d. service life refers to the length of time an asset is of use to its original owner, while physical life refers to how long the asset will be used by all owners.
The term "depreciable base," or "depreciation base," as it is used in accounting, refers to
a. the total amount to be charged (debited) to expense over an asset's useful life.
b. the cost of the asset less the related depreciation recorded to date.
c. the estimated market value of the asset at the end of its useful life.
d. the acquisition cost of the asset.
Economic factors that shorten the service life of an asset include
d. all of these
Which of the following is not one of the basic questions that must be answered before the amount of depreciation charge can be computed?
a. What is the depreciation base to use for the asset?
b. What is the asset's useful life?
c. What method of cost apportionment is best for this asset?
d. What product or service is the asset related to?
Which of the following is a realistic assumption of the straight-line method of depreciation?
a. The asset's economic usefulness is the same each year.
b. The repair and maintenance expense is essentially the same each period.
c. The rate of return analysis is enhanced using the straight-line method.
d. Depreciation is a function of time rather than a function of usage.
The activity method of depreciation
a. is a variable charge approach.
b. assumes that depreciation is a function of the passage of time.
c. conceptually associates cost in terms of input measures.
d. all of these.
For income statement purposes, depreciation is a variable expense if the depreciation method used is
If an industrial firm uses the units-of-production method for computing depreciation on its only plant asset, factory machinery, the credit to accumulated depreciation from period to period during the life of the firm will
a. be constant.
b. vary with unit sales.
c. vary with sales revenue.
d. vary with production.
Use of the double-declining balance method
a. results in a decreasing charge to depreciation expense.
b. means salvage value is not deducted in computing the depreciation base.
c. means the book value should not be reduced below salvage value.
d. all of these.
Use of the sum-of-the-years'-digits method
a. results in salvage value being ignored.
b. means the denominator is the years remaining at the beginning of the year.
c. means the book value should not be reduced below salvage value.
d. all of these.
A graph is set up with "yearly depreciation expense" on the vertical axis and "time" on the horizontal axis. Assuming linear relationships, how would the graphs for straight-line and sum-of-the-years'-digits depreciation, respectively, be drawn?
a. Vertically and sloping down to the right
b. Vertically and sloping up to the right
c. Horizontally and sloping down to the right
d. Horizontally and sloping up to the right
A principal objection to the straight-line method of depreciation is that it
a. provides for the declining productivity of an aging asset.
b. ignores variations in the rate of asset use.
c. tends to result in a constant rate of return on a diminishing investment base.
d. gives smaller periodic write-offs than decreasing charge methods.
Each year a company has been investing an increasingly greater amount in machinery. Since there is a large number of small items with relatively similar useful lives, the company has been applying straight-line depreciation at a uniform rate to the machinery as a group. The ratio of this group's total accumulated depreciation to the total cost of the machinery has been steadily increasing and now stands at .75 to 1.00. The most likely explanation for this increasing ratio is the
a. company should have been using one of the accelerated methods of depreciation.
b. estimated average life of the machinery is less than the actual average useful life.
c. estimated average life of the machinery is greater than the actual average useful life.
d. company has been retiring fully depreciated machinery that should have remained in service.
For the composite method, the composite
a. rate is the total cost divided by the total annual depreciation.
b. rate is the total annual depreciation divided by the total depreciable cost.
c. life is the total cost divided by the total annual depreciation.
d. life is the total depreciable cost divided by the total annual depreciation.
Watkins Truck Rental uses the group depreciation method for its fleet of trucks. When it retires one of its trucks and receives cash from a salvage company, the carrying value of property, plant, and equipment will be decreased by the
a. original cost of the truck.
b. original cost of the truck less the cash proceeds.
c. cash proceeds received.
d. cash proceeds received and original cost of the truck
Composite or group depreciation is a depreciation system whereby
a. the years of useful life of the various assets in the group are added together and the total divided by the number of items.
b. the cost of individual units within an asset group is charged to expense in the year a unit is retired from service.
c. a straight-line rate is computed by dividing the total of the annual depreciation expense for all assets in the group by the total cost of the assets.
d. the original cost of all items in a given group or class of assets is retained in the asset account and the cost of replace¬ments is charged to expense when they are acquired.
When depreciation is computed for partial periods under a decreasing charge depreciation method, it is necessary to
a. charge a full year's depreciation to the year of acquisition.
b. determine depreciation expense for the full year and then prorate the expense between the two periods involved.
c. use the straight-line method for the year in which the asset is sold or otherwise disposed of.
d. use a salvage value equal to the first year's partial depreciation charge.
Depreciation is normally computed on the basis of the nearest
a. full month and to the nearest cent.
b. full month and to the nearest dollar.
c. day and to the nearest cent.
d. day and to the nearest dollar.
Myers Company acquired machinery on January 1, 2007 which it depreciated under the straight-line method with an estimated life of fifteen years and no salvage value. On January 1, 2012, Myers estimated that the remaining life of this machinery was six years with no salvage value. How should this change be accounted for by Myers?
a. As a prior period adjustment
b. As the cumulative effect of a change in accounting principle in 2012
c. By setting future annual depreciation equal to one-sixth of the book value on January 1, 2012
d. By continuing to depreciate the machinery over the original fifteen year life
A change in estimate should
a. result in restatement of prior period statements.
b. be handled in current and future periods.
c. be handled in future periods only.
d. be handled retroactively.
Lynch Printing Company determines that a printing press used in its operations has suffered a permanent impairment in value because of technological changes. An entry to record the impairment should
a. recognize an extraordinary loss for the period.
b. include a credit to the equipment accumulated depreciation account.
c. include a credit to the equipment account.
d. not be made if the equipment is still being used.
Which of following is not a similarity in the accounting treatment for depreciation and cost depletion?
a. The estimated life is based on economic or productive life.
b. Assets subject to either are reported in the same classification on the balance sheet.
c. The rates may be changed upon revision of the estimated productive life used in the original rate computations.
d. Both depreciation and depletion are based on time.
Which of the following is not a difference between the accounting treatment for depreciation and cost depletion?
a. Depletion applies to natural resources while depreciation applies to plant and equipment.
b. Depletion refers to the physical exhaustion or consumption of the asset while depreciation refers to the wear, tear, and obsolescence of the asset.
c. Many formulas are used in computing depreciation but only one is used to any extent in computing depletion.
d. The cost of the asset is the starting point from which computation of the amount of the periodic charge is made to operations for depreciation, but the fair value reassessed each year as the starting point for the periodic charge for depletion.
Dividends representing a return of capital to stockholders are not uncommon among companies which
a. use accelerated depreciation methods.
b. use straight-line depreciation methods.
c. recognize both functional and physical factors in depreciation.
d. none of these.
a. is usually part of cost of goods sold.
b. includes tangible equipment costs in the depletion base.
c. excludes intangible development costs from the depletion base.
d. excludes restoration costs from the depletion base.
The most common method of recording depletion for accounting purposes is the
a. percentage depletion method.
b. decreasing charge method.
c. straight-line method.
d. units-of-production method.
Reserve recognition accounting
a. is presently the generally accepted accounting method for financial reporting of oil and gas reserves.
b. is a historical cost method similar to the full cost approach and the successful efforts approach.
c. is used for reporting of oil and gas reserves for federal income tax purposes.
d. requires estimates of future production costs, the appropriate discount rate, and the expected selling price of oil and gas reserves.
Of the following costs related to the develop¬ment of natural resources, which one is not a part of depletion cost?
a. Acquisition cost of the natural resource deposit
b. Exploration costs
c. Tangible equipment costs associated with machinery used to extract the natural resource
d. Intangible development costs such as drilling costs, tunnels, and shafts
Which of the following disclosures is not required in the financial statements regarding depreciation?
a. Accumulated depreciation, either by major classes of depreciable assets or in total.
b. Details demonstrating how depreciation was calculated.
c. Depreciation expense for the period.
d. Balances of major classes of depreciable assets, by nature and function.
The book value of a plant asset is
a. the fair market value of the asset at a balance sheet date.
b. the asset's acquisition cost less the total related depreciation recorded to date.
c. equal to the balance of the related accumulated depreciation account.
d. the assessed value of the asset for property tax purposes.
A general description of the depreciation methods applicable to major classes of depreciable assets
a. is not a current practice in financial reporting.
b. is not essential to a fair presentation of financial position.
c. is needed in financial reporting when company policy differs from income tax policy.
d. should be included in corporate financial statements or notes thereto.
The asset turnover ratio is computed by dividing
a. net income by ending total assets.
b. net income by average total assets.
c. net sales by ending total assets.
d. net sales by average total assets.
The rate of return on total assets is computed by dividing
a. Net income by ending total assets.
b. Net sales by average total assets.
c. Net sales by ending total assets.
d. Net income by average total assets.
A major objective of MACRS for tax depreciation is to
a. reduce the amount of depreciation deduction on business firms' tax returns.
b. assure that the amount of depreciation for tax and book purposes will be the same.
c. help companies achieve a faster write-off of their capital assets.
d. require companies to use the actual economic lives of assets in calculating tax depreciation.
Under MACRS, which one of the following is not considered in determining depreciation for tax purposes?
a. Cost of asset
b. Property recovery class
c. Half-year convention
d. Salvage value
If income tax effects are ignored, accelerated depreciation methods
a. provide funds for the earlier replacement of fixed assets.
b. increase funds provided by operations.
c. tend to offset the effect of steadily increasing repair and maintenance costs on the income statement.
d. tend to decrease the fixed asset turnover ratio.