How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

130 terms

BIG AP Chem Review

Preparation for AP Chem Test
STUDY
PLAY
Scientific Method
a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses
Law of Conservation of Mass
matter can't be created nor destroyed
Mass
a measure of resistance of an object to a change in its state of motion
Weight
amount of gravitational force exerted on an object
Celsius to Kelvin
Tk=Tc+273
Matter
anything occupying space and with mass
Law of Definite Proportion
a given compound always has exactly the same proportion of elements by mass
Law of Multiple Proportions
when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to whole numbers
Radioactivity
Spontaneous emission of radiation
Types of Radiation
Alpha Particles- 2+ charge
Beta Particles- high-speed electrons
Gamma Ray- high-energy light
Isotopes
atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons
Chemical Bonds
Force that holds atoms together
Naming Binary Ionic Compounds
1.Cation first, anion second
2.A monoatomic cation takes name from its element
3.A monoatomic anion is named by taking its root and adding "-ide"
4.If needed, indicate charge of metal(cation) by a Roman Numeral
5.In covalent bonds, the 1st element is full element name and the 2nd is named like an anion
6.In covalent bonds, prefixes are used to tell amount of atoms present
7.In acid without O2, acid starts in hydro- and ends in -ic
8. In acid with O2, -ate is -ic, and -ite is -ous
Naming Polyatomic Ions
1.The ion with the smaller number of O2 ends in -ite
2.The one with the larger number of O2 ends in -ate
3.If there is more than two oxyanions, then hypo is for fewest O2 ion and per- is used for most O2 ion
Finding Empirical Formulas
1.Calculate moles of each atom in molecule
2.Divide each mole number by smallest mole number
3.If necessary, multiply every mole number to get a whole number
4.Moles of each atom is subscript in empirical formula
Percent Yield
Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield*100%
Net Ionic Equation
only contains ions that change in reaction
Acids
substances that form H+ when dissolved in water; proton donors
Bases
Substances that form OH- when dissolved in water; proton acceptors
Molarity
moles of solute/volume of soln(L)
1atm=?mmHg/Torr
760mmHg/Torr
1atm=?Pa
101,325 Pa
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
P=atm
V=L
n=mol
R=.0826Latm/Kmol
T=K
STP
0°C and 1 atm
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
Ptotal=P1+P2+P3+...
Kinetic Molecular Theory
-FOR IDEAL GASES!!!
1.Volume of individual particles can be assumed to be zero
2.The particles are in constant motion, which causes pressure
3.Particles exert no forces on each other
4.The average kinetic energy of the particles is directly affected by temperature(K)
Decrease Volume and Increase Temperature
Increase Pressure
Increase Temperature
Increase Volume
Root Mean Square Velocity
u(rms)=(3RT/M)^1/2
R=8.31J/Kmol
Joule
SI unit of energy; Kg*m^2/s^2
Molality
mol of solute/kg of solvent
Normality
(N) number of equivalents per liter of solution
-for acid-base rxn, equivalent is the mass of acid/base that makes 1 mole of protons
-for redox rxn, equivalent is amount of red/oxi agent that can take or make 1 mole of electrons
Enthalpy of Solution
▲Hsoln=▲H1+▲H2+▲H3+...
Molal BP Elevation Constant
▲T=k*m(solute)
▲T=BP elevation
k=constant characteristic of solvent
m(solute)=molality of solute
Molal FP Depression Constant
▲T=k*m(solute)
▲T=FPsolvent-FPsolution
k=constant of solvent
Osmotic Pressure
Osmotic pressure=MRT
M=molarity of solution
R=.0821Latm/Kmol
T=K
van't Hoff Factor
i=moles of particles/moles of solute dissolved
Chemical Kinetics
studies the rate at which a chemical process occurs and sheds light on its reaction mechanism
Zero-Order Rate Law
r=k
First-Order Rate Law
r=k[A]
Second-Order Rate Law
r=k[A]^2
Zero-Order Half Life
[A]0/2k
First-Order Half Life
.69/k
Second-Order Half Life
1/([A]0*k)
Integrated Rate Law
expresses how the concentrations depend on time
Overall Reaction Order
n+m (these are orders of reactants)
Integrated First-Order Rate Law
ln[A]=-kt + ln[A]0
-linear form
Integrated Second-Order Rate Law
1/[A]=kt + 1/[A]0
Integrated Zero-Order Rate Law
[A]=-kt + [A]0
c=
λv
Speed of light
c=2.9979*10^8 m/s
Theory of Relativity
E=mc^2
Quantum Model
electrons in a hydrogen atom move around the nucleus only in circular orbits
Quantum Mechanical Model
involves quantum numbers
Quantum Numbers
describe various properties of one orbital
Principal Quantum Number
(n) has values 1,2,3,...; tells energy levels
Angular Momentum Quantum Number
(ℓ), has values from 0 to (n-1); tells shape of atomic orbitals
ℓ=0
s orbital
ℓ=1
p orbital
ℓ=2
d orbital
ℓ=3
f orbital
ℓ=4
g orbital
Magnetic Quantum Number
(mℓ) has values from -ℓ to ℓ, including zero; tells orientation of the orbital relative to other orbitals
Nodes
where there are no electrons
Electron Spin Quantum Number
(msubs) can only be +1/2 or -1/2
Pauli Exclusion Principle
in a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Aufbau Principle
as protons are added to the nucleus, electrons are similarly added
Hund's Rule
the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the max number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli principle in a set of degenerate orbitals
Equilibrium Expression
K=[C]^l[D]^m/[A]^j[B]^k; products/reactants; solids don't count
Equilibrium constant
K
Reaction Quotient
(Q) does the same as equilibrium expression, except it uses initial concentrations
Q=K
at equilibrium (Q?K)
Q>K
shift to left (Q?K)
Q<K
shift to right (Q?K)
Le Chatelier's Principle
if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce that change
Acid Dissociation Constant
Ka=[products]^m/[reactants]^n
pH=
=log[H+]
Buffered Solution
a solution that resists a change in its pH
Solubility Product
(Ksp) an equilibrium expression
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy can't be created nor destroyed
Heat
the transfer of energy between two objects due to temperature difference
Work
force acting over distance
▲E
q+w
Specific Heat Capacity
J/°Cg or J/K*g
Molar Heat Capacity
J/°Cmol or J/K*mol
Hess's Law
in going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps
▲H°reaction
Σn▲H°(products)-Σn▲H°(reactants)
Entropy
(S) the driving force for a spontaneous is an increase in entropy of the universe
▲Suniv
▲Ssys+▲Ssurr
▲Ssurr
-▲H/T
▲G
▲H-T▲S
▲G°
▲H°-T▲S°
G
G°+RTln(Q)
R=8.31
w(max)
=▲G (work)
Galvanic Cell
a device in which chemical energy is changed to electrical energy
Anode
where oxidation occurs
Cathode
where reduction occurs
Cell Potential
(Ecell) driving force of the electrons
Volt
unit of electrical potential; J/C
Faraday
96,485 C/mol e-
▲G
-nFE
E=cell potential
Ampere
(A), C/s
Bond Energy
energy required to break a bond
Polar Covalent Bond
bond in which atoms aren't so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough that unequal sharing occurs
Electronegativity
ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Dipole Moment
a molecule having a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
▲H
Σ(bonds broken)-Σ(bonds formed)
LE Model
assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms
Lone Pair
pairs of electrons localized on an atom
Bonding Pairs
electron pairs found in the space between the atoms
3 Parts of the LE Model
1. Describe the valence e- arrangement using Lewis structures
2. Predict the shape of the molecule using VSEPR
3. Describe the type of atomic orbitals used by the atoms
Resonance
when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule; represented by double-headed arrows
Formal Charge
(# of valence e- on free atom) - (# of valence e- assigned to atom in molecule)
Valence Electrons(assigned)
(# of lone pair e-)+1/2(# of shared e-)
Steps to VSEPR Model
1. Draw the Lewis Structure
2. Count the e- pairs and arrange as far apart as possible
3. Determine positions of atoms from way e- pairs are shared
4. Determine name of molecular structure from positions of atoms
Linear
180°, sp
Trigonal Planar
120°, sp^2
Tetrahedral
109.5°, sp^3
Trigonal Bipyramidal
90°&120°, dsp^3
Octahedral
90°, d^2sp^3
Hybridization
the mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding
Sigma Bond
the line running between the atoms
Pi Bond
occupies the space above and below a sigma bond
Molecular Orbitals (MOs)
similar to atomic orbitals, except between molecules
Antibonding Molecular Orbital
higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed
Bond Order
# bonding e- - # antibonding e-/2
Coordination Compound
consists of a complex ion, a transition metal with attached ligands, and counterions
Counterions
anions or cations as needed to produce a compound with non net charge
Ligand
a neutral molecule/ion having a lone e- pair that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion
London Dispersion Forces
the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles