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Preparation for AP Chem Test

Scientific Method

a method of investigation involving observation and theory to test scientific hypotheses

Law of Conservation of Mass

matter can't be created nor destroyed


a measure of resistance of an object to a change in its state of motion


amount of gravitational force exerted on an object

Celsius to Kelvin



anything occupying space and with mass

Law of Definite Proportion

a given compound always has exactly the same proportion of elements by mass

Law of Multiple Proportions

when two elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the second element that combine with 1g of the first element can always be reduced to whole numbers


Spontaneous emission of radiation

Types of Radiation

Alpha Particles- 2+ charge
Beta Particles- high-speed electrons
Gamma Ray- high-energy light


atoms with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons

Chemical Bonds

Force that holds atoms together

Naming Binary Ionic Compounds

1.Cation first, anion second
2.A monoatomic cation takes name from its element
3.A monoatomic anion is named by taking its root and adding "-ide"
4.If needed, indicate charge of metal(cation) by a Roman Numeral
5.In covalent bonds, the 1st element is full element name and the 2nd is named like an anion
6.In covalent bonds, prefixes are used to tell amount of atoms present
7.In acid without O2, acid starts in hydro- and ends in -ic
8. In acid with O2, -ate is -ic, and -ite is -ous

Naming Polyatomic Ions

1.The ion with the smaller number of O2 ends in -ite
2.The one with the larger number of O2 ends in -ate
3.If there is more than two oxyanions, then hypo is for fewest O2 ion and per- is used for most O2 ion

Finding Empirical Formulas

1.Calculate moles of each atom in molecule
2.Divide each mole number by smallest mole number
3.If necessary, multiply every mole number to get a whole number
4.Moles of each atom is subscript in empirical formula

Percent Yield

Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield*100%

Net Ionic Equation

only contains ions that change in reaction


substances that form H+ when dissolved in water; proton donors


Substances that form OH- when dissolved in water; proton acceptors


moles of solute/volume of soln(L)




101,325 Pa

Ideal Gas Law



0°C and 1 atm

Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures


Kinetic Molecular Theory

1.Volume of individual particles can be assumed to be zero
2.The particles are in constant motion, which causes pressure
3.Particles exert no forces on each other
4.The average kinetic energy of the particles is directly affected by temperature(K)

Decrease Volume and Increase Temperature

Increase Pressure

Increase Temperature

Increase Volume

Root Mean Square Velocity



SI unit of energy; Kg*m^2/s^2


mol of solute/kg of solvent


(N) number of equivalents per liter of solution
-for acid-base rxn, equivalent is the mass of acid/base that makes 1 mole of protons
-for redox rxn, equivalent is amount of red/oxi agent that can take or make 1 mole of electrons

Enthalpy of Solution


Molal BP Elevation Constant

▲T=BP elevation
k=constant characteristic of solvent
m(solute)=molality of solute

Molal FP Depression Constant

k=constant of solvent

Osmotic Pressure

Osmotic pressure=MRT
M=molarity of solution

van't Hoff Factor

i=moles of particles/moles of solute dissolved

Chemical Kinetics

studies the rate at which a chemical process occurs and sheds light on its reaction mechanism

Zero-Order Rate Law


First-Order Rate Law


Second-Order Rate Law


Zero-Order Half Life


First-Order Half Life


Second-Order Half Life


Integrated Rate Law

expresses how the concentrations depend on time

Overall Reaction Order

n+m (these are orders of reactants)

Integrated First-Order Rate Law

ln[A]=-kt + ln[A]0
-linear form

Integrated Second-Order Rate Law

1/[A]=kt + 1/[A]0

Integrated Zero-Order Rate Law

[A]=-kt + [A]0

Speed of light

c=2.9979*10^8 m/s

Theory of Relativity


Quantum Model

electrons in a hydrogen atom move around the nucleus only in circular orbits

Quantum Mechanical Model

involves quantum numbers

Quantum Numbers

describe various properties of one orbital

Principal Quantum Number

(n) has values 1,2,3,...; tells energy levels

Angular Momentum Quantum Number

(ℓ), has values from 0 to (n-1); tells shape of atomic orbitals


s orbital


p orbital


d orbital


f orbital


g orbital

Magnetic Quantum Number

(mℓ) has values from -ℓ to ℓ, including zero; tells orientation of the orbital relative to other orbitals


where there are no electrons

Electron Spin Quantum Number

(msubs) can only be +1/2 or -1/2

Pauli Exclusion Principle

in a given atom no two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers

Aufbau Principle

as protons are added to the nucleus, electrons are similarly added

Hund's Rule

the lowest energy configuration for an atom is the one having the max number of unpaired electrons allowed by the Pauli principle in a set of degenerate orbitals

Equilibrium Expression

K=[C]^l[D]^m/[A]^j[B]^k; products/reactants; solids don't count

Equilibrium constant


Reaction Quotient

(Q) does the same as equilibrium expression, except it uses initial concentrations


at equilibrium (Q?K)


shift to left (Q?K)


shift to right (Q?K)

Le Chatelier's Principle

if a change is imposed on a system at equilibrium, the position of the equilibrium will shift in a direction that tends to reduce that change

Acid Dissociation Constant




Buffered Solution

a solution that resists a change in its pH

Solubility Product

(Ksp) an equilibrium expression

Law of Conservation of Energy

energy can't be created nor destroyed


the transfer of energy between two objects due to temperature difference


force acting over distance

Specific Heat Capacity

J/°Cg or J/Kg

Molar Heat Capacity

J/°Cmol or J/Kmol

Hess's Law

in going from a particular set of reactants to a particular set of products, the change in enthalpy is the same whether the reaction takes place in one step or in a series of steps




(S) the driving force for a spontaneous is an increase in entropy of the universe












=▲G (work)

Galvanic Cell

a device in which chemical energy is changed to electrical energy


where oxidation occurs


where reduction occurs

Cell Potential

(Ecell) driving force of the electrons


unit of electrical potential; J/C


96,485 C/mol e-


E=cell potential


(A), C/s

Bond Energy

energy required to break a bond

Polar Covalent Bond

bond in which atoms aren't so different that electrons are completely transferred but are different enough that unequal sharing occurs


ability of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself

Dipole Moment

a molecule having a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge


Σ(bonds broken)-Σ(bonds formed)

LE Model

assumes that a molecule is composed of atoms that are bound together by sharing pairs of electrons using the atomic orbitals of the bound atoms

Lone Pair

pairs of electrons localized on an atom

Bonding Pairs

electron pairs found in the space between the atoms

3 Parts of the LE Model

1. Describe the valence e- arrangement using Lewis structures
2. Predict the shape of the molecule using VSEPR
3. Describe the type of atomic orbitals used by the atoms


when more than one valid Lewis structure can be written for a particular molecule; represented by double-headed arrows

Formal Charge

(# of valence e- on free atom) - (# of valence e- assigned to atom in molecule)

Valence Electrons(assigned)

(# of lone pair e-)+1/2(# of shared e-)

Steps to VSEPR Model

1. Draw the Lewis Structure
2. Count the e- pairs and arrange as far apart as possible
3. Determine positions of atoms from way e- pairs are shared
4. Determine name of molecular structure from positions of atoms


180°, sp

Trigonal Planar

120°, sp^2


109.5°, sp^3

Trigonal Bipyramidal

90°&120°, dsp^3


90°, d^2sp^3


the mixing of native atomic orbitals to form special orbitals for bonding

Sigma Bond

the line running between the atoms

Pi Bond

occupies the space above and below a sigma bond

Molecular Orbitals (MOs)

similar to atomic orbitals, except between molecules

Antibonding Molecular Orbital

higher in energy than the atomic orbitals of which it is composed

Bond Order

# bonding e- - # antibonding e-/2

Coordination Compound

consists of a complex ion, a transition metal with attached ligands, and counterions


anions or cations as needed to produce a compound with non net charge


a neutral molecule/ion having a lone e- pair that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion

London Dispersion Forces

the intermolecular attractions resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

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