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1861-1865: Unit 4.2 (The Civil War)
From the first shots at Fort Sumtner to the assassination of President Lincoln.
Terms in this set (28)
16th U.S. president who helped "Preserve the Union" by leading the United States to victory during the Civil War by defeating the secessionist Confederacy. His release of the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 changed the focus of the war. He was assassinated in April 14th, 1865, just before the official end of the Civil War.
This is where the CIVIL WAR began. CONFEDERATE forces fired upon UNION soldiers occupying the fort in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina on Aptil 12, 1865. The UNION surrendered the fort two days later. Although there were no battle casualties on either side, it marked the beginning of the bloodiest war in American history.
Constitutional protection against unlawful imprisonment. It requires that a person under arrest to be brought before a judge or into court where they must be told what they are being charged with. One of President Lincoln's most controversial decisions was suspending this basic American right during the Civil War.
The UNION strategy for victory in the CIVIL WAR. The plan called for a blockade of the southern coast, UNION control of the Mississippi River, and the capture of Richmond, Virginia (the CONFEDERATE capital.)
1) Larger population 2) A much larger industrial capacity 3) A huge edge in railroad transportation
1) Better generals 2) "King Cotton" diplomacy 3) They merely needed to outlast their enemy
The CONFEDERATE strategy for victory in the CIVIL WAR. The plan was to protect Southern territory from Northern troops and attack UNION territory when possible, convince England and France to support the South, and to drag out the war in order to get the North to quit.
"PRESERVE THE UNION"
This was Lincoln's goal at the beginning of the Civil War.
NEW YORK DRAFT RIOTS
Violent uprising in July, 1863 that initially began over displeasure with America's new CONSCRIPTION law. It soon turned into a racial confict when Irish-American immigrants focused their anger on black citizens. With the announcement of the EMANCIPATION PROCLIMATION a few months earlier, many northern whites feared they were no longer being drafted to fight a war to preserve the UNION, they were instead being duped into freeing slaves who would eventually move north and take their jobs. During the five days of bloodshed, over 2,000 were injured and nearly 500 people were killed.
Getting soldiers who are needed for military service by using a draft. First used in America during the CIVIL WAR.
1st BATTLE OF BULL RUN
The first major battle of the Civil War. It took place about 25 miles outside of Washington D.C. The Confederate victory gave the South a surge of confidence and shocked many in the North, who realized that the war would not be won quickly or easily.
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM
September 17, 1862 became the bloodiest single day during the war with over 5,000 dead and no clear winner. The importance of this battle was that it convinced Britain and France to stay out of the war and it gave ABRAHAM LINCOLN the military momentum he needed to issue the EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
BATTLE OF VICKSBURG
Battle in which UNION forces captured a strategic city on the Mississippi River after a long siege. This gave the UNION virtual control of all traffic up and down the river and was a major blow to the CONFEDERACY.
BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG
The most important battle of the CIVIL WAR. In early July of 1863, UNION soldiers prevented ROBERT E. LEE from successfully invading the North. This victory, combined with the CONFEDERATE defeat in VICKSBURG, turned the tide against the South.
Intending to both disrupt the CONFEDERACY and frame the CIVIL WAR in a new moral light, ABRAHAM LINCOLN abolished slavery in all the CONFEDERATE states on January 1, 1863. He did not, however, apply his presidential edict to any of the BORDER STATES.
Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware (and later, West Virginia) all remained loyal to the UNION during the CIVIL WAR despite the fact that they all allowed slavery.
CIVIL WAR TECHNOLOGY
The GATLING GUN, LONG RANGE ARTILLERY, and IRON-CLAD SHIPS all made their debut during the conflict.
APPOMATTOX COURT HOUSE
On April 9, 1865, ROBERT E. LEE surrendered the CONFEDERATE army to ULYSSES S. GRANT in a small government building in Virginia bringing an end to the CIVIL WAR.
American statesman and politician from Mississippi who served as the only president of the Confederate States of America throughout the Civil War from 1861 to 1865.
GENERAL THOMAS "STONEWALL" JACKSON
One of the most successful generals in the Confederate Army. When he died at Battle of Chancellorsville in May of 1863, Robert E. Lee's said that he had "lost his right-hand."
ROBERT E. LEE
Widely respected general from VIRGINIA who commanded the CONFEDERATE army during the CIVIL WAR. During the first half of the war, he led his troops in several victorious battles in the east, but after his failed attempt to strike at the UNION in GETTYSBURG, PA, the South could not recover.
"MARCH TO THE SEA"
UNION general, WILLIAM T. SHERMAN led his troops from Chattanooga to Savanah in late 1864 destroying or confiscating everything that might be of value along the way. The capture and burning of Atlanta in September of that year helped ensure victory for ABRAHAM LINCOLN in his bid for re-election a few weeks later. This military campaign, known as TOTAL WAR, was intended to bring about a swifter end to the bitter conflict that had been raging for nearly four years.
GENERAL WILLIAM T. SHERMAN
Union general during the Civil War whose famous March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia, then north into the Carolinas, helped to finally end the Civil War. The devastation wrought by his tactic of TOTAL WAR ultimately devastated much of the South.
ULYSSES S. GRANT
Although he was not even in the army when the first shots were fired at FORT SUMTER, within three years he was the master general of the UNION army who captured the CONFEDERATE stronghold of VICKSBURG, MS. and later personally accepted the terms of surrender from ROBERT E. LEE which officially ended the CIVIL WAR.
BATTLE OF ATLANTA
As General Grant led the Union attack on the Confederate capital of Richmond, VA in the northeast, Union General William T. Sherman headed southeast from Tennessee toward Atlanta, Georgia, an important rail-head and supply center for the South. The battle on July 22, 1864 was a decisive Union victory, but it would be another six weeks before Atlanta surrendered.
LINCOLN'S SECOND INAUGURAL ADDRESS
Delivered on March 4, 1865 at a time during the Civil War when Union victory over the Confederacy was drawing near, Lincoln warned against harsh treatment of the defeated South ("With malice toward none, with charity for all...") while still recognizing the unmistakable evil of slavery.
ASSASSINATION OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN
On the evening of April 14, 1865, John Wilkes Booth, a famous actor and Confederate sympathizer, assassinated President Abraham Lincoln at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. The attack came only five days after Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his massive army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, effectively ending the American Civil War.
JOHN WILKES BOOTH
Well known actor of the mid-nineteenth century who assassinated president ABRAHAM LINCOLN at Ford's Theater, in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865. The CONFERERATE sympathizer had heard LINCOLN'S plan to give the newly freed slaves in the South the right to vote. This enraged him and, with the help of several co-conspirators, he devised a plan to overthrow the government of the UNITED STATES.
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