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20 terms

PSY 101 Ch. 12

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Although Rolf frequently cheats on classroom tests, he justifies his behavior by erroneously thinking that most other students cheat even more than he does. His mistaken belief best illustrates
self-serving bias.
Social cues are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ settings, and personality traits are especially likely to influence our behavior in ______ situations.
unfamiliar; informal
Compared with those who made a purchase choice from among 30 different brands of jam or chocolate, those who chose from among just 6 brands expressed
more satisfaction with their choice.
Humanistic theorists have been criticized for
underestimating the inherent human capacity for destructive and evil behaviors.
Mrs. Sunstedt believes that parents should accept and try to understand their children's feelings and should honestly disclose their own inner feelings to their children. Her approach to parent-child interaction was most explicitly recommended by
Rogers.
A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates
denial.
Freud suggested that the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as
erogenous zones.
Studies of college students' conscientiousness revealed only a modest relationship between a student being conscientious on one occasion and being similarly conscientious on another occasion. This should make psychologists more cautious about overestimating the impact of ________ on behavior.
personality traits
The parallel processing of distinctive dimensions of a visual scene such as movement, color, and shape best illustrates the importance of
unconscious thought.
In every one of 53 countries surveyed, people typically expressed self-esteem above the midpoint of the most widely used self-esteem scale. This best illustrates the pervasiveness of
self-serving bias.
Which theorist emphasized that an individual's personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathic?
Rogers
The defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
projection.
Refusing to believe or even to perceive painful realities constitutes the defense mechanism known as
denial.
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one's personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the Barnum effect.
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
unconditional positive regard.
Freud referred to the largely conscious "executive" part of the personality as the
superego.
Sexually active undergraduate women who do not consistently use contraceptives often perceive themselves as less vulnerable to unwanted pregnancy than do other undergraduate women. This best illustrates
unrealistic optimism.
Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
openness.
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
an external locus of control.
Compared with those who perceive an external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to
effectively delay gratification of their impulses.