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Charles Darwin

1809-1882, British, 1859 Origin of Species, he introduced natural selection, 1871 Decent of Man, says morality is defense against environmental pressures

natural selection

a process by which certian forms of life have features that help them survive in their envirnoments

Auguste Comte

1798-1857, French Philosopher, developed positivism, wanted to improve the human condition, father of sociology, believed their were laws to human behavior


Stages of the Human Mind-
1. Thological- God's give everything
2. Metaphysical- abstract ideas to explain everything
3. Positive- descripe with evidence and science

John Stuart Mill

1806-1873, politician, writer, feminist, he published Against the Subjection of Women- equal in marriage

Herbert Spencer

1820-1903, applys Darwins ideas and creates evolution ethics- the struggle between peoples and nations is a struggle for survival, also governments that are strong have the obligation to stay strong to protect their people

David Fredrich Strauss

1808-1874, 1835 Life of Jesus, no historical evidence that Jesus of Nazarth actually exsisted, the actual story is what is important, it rose out of social and politcal conditions of the Jews under Roman rule

Ernest Renan

1823-1892, religous scholar, the Bible is a work of human hands and not of divine hands, it is not a historical account just made up stories

Fredrich Nietzsche

1844-1900, studied early greek works, christianity is a religion of sheep- it glorifies suffering, encourages slavery, and makes people weak, said "God is dead and we have killed him" society eliminated the good of God with science and reason

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