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________ is defined as an active system that receives information from the senses, organizes and alters information as it stores it away, and then retrieves the information from storage.


Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of ________.


Which technique is widely used by therapists to help clients recover lost childhood memories?


Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study under water, you do better when tested under water. This finding is an example of ________.

encoding specificity

When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ________.

primacy effect

A terrible crime is committed, and an eyewitness is unable to identify whether a suspect arrested by the police is actually the one who committed the crime. The police bring in Madame Xanadu to hypnotize the witness, and then the witness identifies the suspect the police have in custody. Of course, the Madame knew who the suspect was before she hypnotized the witness. At the trial, the defense attorney objects. The core of the objection to the judge would be that ________.

All of these are good objections

Retrieving information from long-term memory is done by assembling information from various brain locations in a process known as ________.

constructive processing.

Long ago, during the early days of television, when a television set was turned off it took a while for the last image that was on the screen to fade away. This phenomenon is most like ________.

iconic memory

Work with electroconvulsive shock therapy (ECT) for severe depression suggests that consolidation ________.

may take years to complete

Most people have difficulty actually recognizing the correct image of the Lincoln penny. The most likely cause of this problem is ________.

encoding failure

Sitting in a very noisy restaurant, you are able to screen out all the other conversations around you so you can listen to the friend with whom you are conversing. This is an example of ________.

selective attention

Someone a short distance away, to whom you have been paying no attention, quietly speaks your name, and suddenly you attend to that person. This is an example of ________.

the cocktail party effect

Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War (whatever that was!). Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth, but time is up. As Janie is walking down the stairs, all of a sudden, she remembers the fifth point, but it is too late. Janie had a problem with ________.


In the semantic network model of memory, concepts that are related in meaning ________.

are stored physically closer to each other than concepts that are not highly related

False positives occur when a person incorrectly "matches"a stimulus that is merely similar to a real memory to that memory. One major problem with eyewitness testimony is that ________.

false positives can cause eyewitness testimony to be quite inaccurate

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