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52 terms

Animal Form and Function

the study of the structure of an organism
the study of the functions of an organism
convergent evolution
occurs because natural selection leads to a similar adaptations when diverse organisms face a similar environmental challenge
surface-to-volume ratio
one of the physical constraints on the size of single-celled organisms
groups of cells that have a common structure and function
epithelial tissue
occurs insheets of tightly packed cells, covers the body, lines the organs, and acts as a protective barrier
connective tissue
mainly supports and binds other tissues
nervous tissue
senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the body to the other neurons, glands, muscles, and the brain
muscle tissue
composed oflong cells called muscle fibers, contract when they arestimulated by a nerve impulse
organized groups of tissues
metabolic rate
the amount of energe it uses in a unit of time
warmed by the heat generated by their metabolism
do not produce enough heat by metabolism to influence their body temperature
basal metabolic rate
its metabolic rate when it iss at rest, is experiencingnostress, and has an empty stomach
the state of internal balance in the face of external changes
detects a change
control center
processes information
makes an appropriate response
negative feedback system
a change in the variable being monitored triggers a change in the control center that prevents further change in the variable or brings the variable back within desirable parameters
positive feedback system
a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change
refers to how animals maintain their internal temperature
the transfer of heat between molecules of objects thatare in direct contact with one another
the transfer of heat through the movement of air or a liquid past a surface
the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects that are warmer than absolute zero
the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid, as molecules leave the surface as gas
adjustment of the rate of heat exchange
between the animal and its environment - through insulating hair, feathers, and fat - is accomplished through vasodilation
suspension feeders
animals that sift small food particles from water
substrate feeders
live in or on their food source, eating their way through food
fluid feeders
pull nutrient-rich fluid from a living host
bulk feeders
eat relatively large pieces of food
caloric imbalance
can result in undernourished animals that have diets deficient in calories, or overnourished animals that consume more calories than they need
calcium and phosphorus, are simple inorganic nutrients that are also required in the diet in small amounts
enzymatic hydrolysis
the reaction by which macromolecules are broken up, involves addition of water
intracellular digestion
within a cell enclosed by a protective membrane, sponges digest their food this way
extracellular digestion
carried out by most animals, in this type of digestion, food is broken down outside of cells
salivary amylase
hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
a junction that opens to the esophagus and the trachea
covers the trachea, diverts the food down the esophagus
rhymthic waves of contraction by smooth muscle in the walls of the esophagus
stroke volume
amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle during each contraction
atrioventricular valve
between each atrium and ventricle prevents the backflow of blood intop the atria
semilunar valves
one located at the entrance to the pulmonary artery and the second at the entrance to the aorta that prevent backflow of blood
sinoatrial node
the pacemaker of the heart
lymphatic system
responsible for returning lost fluid and proteins to the blood in the form of lymph
mostly water, contains ions, electrolytes, and plasma proteins
the respiratory pigment found in almost all vertebrates
B Lymphocytes
proliferate in the bone marrow
T Lymphocytes
the lymphocytes mature in the thymus
foreign molecules that elicit a response by lymphocytes
proteins secreted by B cells during an immune response
MHC molecules
responsible for stimulating the rejection of tissue grafts and organ transplants
antidiuretic hormone
an important hormone in the regulation of water balance