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occurs because natural selection leads to a similar adaptations when diverse organisms face a similar environmental challenge
occurs insheets of tightly packed cells, covers the body, lines the organs, and acts as a protective barrier
senses stimuli and transmits signals from one part of the body to the other neurons, glands, muscles, and the brain
composed oflong cells called muscle fibers, contract when they arestimulated by a nerve impulse
basal metabolic rate
its metabolic rate when it iss at rest, is experiencingnostress, and has an empty stomach
negative feedback system
a change in the variable being monitored triggers a change in the control center that prevents further change in the variable or brings the variable back within desirable parameters
positive feedback system
a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify rather than reverse the change
the transfer of heat between molecules of objects thatare in direct contact with one another
adjustment of the rate of heat exchange
between the animal and its environment - through insulating hair, feathers, and fat - is accomplished through vasodilation
can result in undernourished animals that have diets deficient in calories, or overnourished animals that consume more calories than they need
calcium and phosphorus, are simple inorganic nutrients that are also required in the diet in small amounts
within a cell enclosed by a protective membrane, sponges digest their food this way
carried out by most animals, in this type of digestion, food is broken down outside of cells
hydrolyzes starch and glycogen into smaller polysaccharides and the disaccharide maltose
between each atrium and ventricle prevents the backflow of blood intop the atria
one located at the entrance to the pulmonary artery and the second at the entrance to the aorta that prevent backflow of blood
responsible for returning lost fluid and proteins to the blood in the form of lymph
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