Organic Chemistry: Proteins & Nucleic Acids

Amino acid
small organic molecules comprised of a central carbon single bonded to (1) a carbonyl (COOH), (2) an amino (NH₂), (3) a hydrogen (H), and a variable group.
"R" group
the variable group on the central carbon of an amino acid, this group provides functionality to the polypeptide once the amino acid undergoes polymerization
Peptide bond
the amide group that results when two amino acids undergo a condensation reaction; the carboyxl (COOH) end of one amino acid reacts with the amino (NH₂) end of another amino acid.
Polypeptide chain
a polymer comprised of only amino acid monomers
the large biomolecule which results from Van der Waals forces between multiple, long polypeptide chains; in the body, these are functional molecules which do important jobs
a small organic molecule containing a polar phosphate group (PO₄), a sugar, and a nitrogen-containing base structure
the two-ringed nitrogen-containing base of a nucleotide
the single-ringed nitrogen-containing base of a nucleotide
Phosphodiester bond
the carbon-oxygen-phosphorous-oxygen-carbon (C-O-P-O-C) bond that is created when the phosphate group (PO₄) of one nucleotide undergoes a condensation reaction with a pendant hydroxyl group (-OH) on the sugar portion of an adjacent nucleotide molecule