the ability to create, acquire, analyse, maintain and disseminate knowledge for the benefit of patient care
knowledge derived from personal experience
knowledge Contained in an externally verifiable form
knowledge of guidelines and protocol
Literature review focussed on a research question that tries to identify, appraise, select and synthesise high quality research evidence relevant to the question
elements of WHO screening test criteria 1968
factors that lead to conclusions that are a systematic departure from the truth
the results of the test are unlikely to be due to chance
direct to consumer advertising
conflict of interest
a set of conditions whereby professional judgement concerning a primary interest is unduly influenced by a secondary influence
source: Original material that has not been altered by a third party. Represents new thoughts, discoveries or ideas
source:Information about a primary source that has been modified. It may describe, interpret, analyse or evaluate primary sources of information
source:A collection of primary and secondary sources. Materials have been modified, collated, re-analysed etc. then compiled into a concise format such as a textbook or guide
evidence not based on facts
Information where investigators observe the natural course of events. It is cheap, ethical and quick
Information where investigators have intervened to decide who will be exposed and who will not to a particular intervention
formulation, search, appraisal, integration
steps of evidence based clinical approach
are the results correct?
can the results be reproduced?
Allocation of subjects to groups. This can be reduced via randomisation with concealment
Implementation of interventions. This can be reduced via double blinding or use of a placebo
Follow up of participants. This can be reduced via analysis of subjects as randomised.
Evaluation of outcomes. This can be reduced via blinded outcome assessment
Difference in proportion of subjects with the outcome of interest. events in placebo group -events in treatment group.
Probability of an event in the active treatment group divided by that of the control group
relative risk reduction
Standardised measure of absolute risk reduction
clinical expertise, external evidence
evidence based medicine
Involve a clear question, then specific methods to identify, select and appraise relevant research and then finally the results are analysed and summarised. Aims to minimise bias and maximise confidence. For example, the Cochrane reviews
The application of statistical methods for pooling and synthesising quantitative results of different studies. May be included in a systematic review