How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

Genetics Ch. 1-5 Terms

STUDY
PLAY
Principle of Segregation
In the formation of gametes, the genes separate in such a way that each gamete is equally likely to contain either member of the pair.
Dominant trait
Expressed in the phenotype when the genotype is either heterozygous or homozygous
Recessive trait
Expressed in the phenotype when a genotype is homozygous for the alternative allele.
Principle of Independent Assortment
Segregation of the members of any pair of alleles is independent of the segregation of other pairs in the formation of reproductive cells.
Addition rule
The probability of the realization of one or the other of two mutually exclusive possibilities, A or B, is the sum of their separate probabilities
Multiplication rule
The probability of two independent possibilities, A and B, being realized simultaneously is given by the product of their separate probabilities
Variable expressivity
Genes that are expressed to different degrees in different organisms
Penetrance
Proportion of organisms whose phenotype matches their genotype for a given trait.
Epistasis
When one gene masks the expression of another
Key ingredients for PCR
Template DNA
Primers
DNA polymerase
dNTP's
Key steps for PCR
Heat/denature
Cool/anneal
Polymerize/copy
Fundamental limitation for PCR
Primer sequences MUST be known
Vectors
Plasmids used for in vitro cloning of foreign DNA fragments