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AP Psychology 15: Stress and Health

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Health Psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Stress
the process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
Distress
a negative stress that can make a person sick or can keep a person from reaching a goal
Stressors
sources of stress
Hassles
annoyances of daily life that impose a stressful burden
Chronic Stress
unrelieved stress that continues to tax a person's resources to the point of exhaustion
Life Event
An episode marking a transition point in the life course that provokes coping and readjustment.
Frustration
the blocking of goal-directed behavior
Conflict
struggle between opposing forces
Approach-Approach Conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose between two attractive alternatives
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose between two distasteful alternatives
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Conflict that results from having to choose an alternative that has both attractive and unappealing aspects
Multiple Approach-Avoidance Conflict
a conflict in which one must choose between options that have both many attractive and many negative aspects
Traumatic Stressors
Situations that threaten your own or others' physical safety, arousing feelings of fear, horror, or helplesness.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
an anxiety disorder that involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event; characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal; jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
Type A Behavior Pattern
A behavior pattern marked by a sense of time urgency, impatience, excessive competitiveness, hostility, and anger; considered a risk factor in coronary heart disease.
Type B Behavior Pattern
a pattern of behavior characterized by relaxed, noncompetitive, easygoing, and accommodating behavior
Acculturative Stress
stress resulting from the need to change and adapt a person's ways to the majority culture
Hans Seyle
The father of "modern stress theory." Defined eustress and distress. Stated that stress is a mutual action of forces in the body.General Adaptation Syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome
Seyle's concept that the body responds to stress with alarm, resistance and exhaustion
Alarm Reaction
first stage of the general adaptation syndrome, involving mobilization of the body's resurces to cope with an immediate stressor
Fight-or-Flight response
a physical reaction triggered by the sympathetic nervous system preparing the body to fight or run from a threatening situation
Resistance Stage
second stage of the general adaptation syndrome, characterized by the body's attempt to adjust or adapt to persistent stress
Exhaustion Stage
third stage of the general adaptation syndrome, characterized by depletion of bodily resources and a lowered resistance to stress-related disorders or conditions
Corticotrophin-Releasing Hormone (CRH)
hormone
released by the hypothalamus
that signals the release of ACTH
by the anterior pituitary gland.
Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone (ACTH)
stimulates secretion from adrenal cortex
Adrenal Glands
a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
Corticosteroids
adrenal hormones that increase the body's resistance to stress by increasing the availability of stored nutrients to meet the increased energy demands of coping with stressful events
Adrenal Cortex
the ourter part of the adrenal gland that secretes many hormones, including cortisone and aldosterone
Adrenal Medulla
inner part of adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
Immune system
the cells, tissues, and organs that protect the body from disease.
Lymphocytes
Make antibodies to destroy foreign pathogens
Antigens
Foreign material that invades the body
Antibodies
Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents
Psychological hardiness
A personality trait characterized by control, commitment, and challenge.
Burnout
exhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation, usually as a result of prolonged stress or frustration
Coronary Heart Disease
the clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Arteriosclerosis
hardening of an artery
Atherosclerosis
condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up on the inner walls of the arteries
Cancer
disorder in which some of the body's own cells lose the ability to control growth
Asthma
a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
Migraine Headaches
characterized by periodic attacks of pain, nausea, increased sensitivity to light and sound
Peptic ulcers
These are erosions that form in the esophagus, stomach or duodenum, resulting from an acid/pepsin imbalance