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118 terms

History Final Review

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As president, Warren G. Harding had all of the following weaknesses except
his personal involvement in fraud and corruption within the government
The United States truly became a consumer society during the 1920s, which meant that Americans
bought things both for their needs and their pleasures
During the 1920s, some employers adopted a system known as "welfare capitalism," which
provided workers with fringe benefits such as shorter workweeks and retirement pensions
Herbert Hoover's presidency saw the demise of the New Era, because less than one year after being inaugurated
the United States entered its longest and most severe economic crisis
The National Origins Act of 1924 banned immigration entirely from
east Asia
As president, Calvin Coolidge was
a puritanical individual who believed the government should not interfere with the life of the nation
Langston Hughes of the "Harlem Renaissance" movement penned the line
"I am a Negro—and beautiful"
The first feature-length film to feature "talkie" sound was
The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson
So-called "pink-collar" jobs included all the following, except
Teachers
The dilemma of American labor in the 1920s lay in the poor distribution of wealth and purchasing power, because wages
rose, but many workers still lived at or below a minimum living standard
During the 1920s, the growth in agricultural production resulted in all of the following developments except
an increase in demand
The Teapot Dome Scandal is associated with
Warren Harding
During the 1920s, the United States experienced an economic boom that included
a substantial increase in the nation's manufacturing output
Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, promoted the idea of divine approval for advertising and salesmanship when he depicted
Jesus as prophet and "super salesman" who was concerned with living a full and rewarding life in this world
The revived Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s opposed all of the following EXCEPT
Republican Politicians
The "noble experiment" of prohibition resulted in all of the following developments except
the creation of a very large force of government agents to enforce the law
The changing attitudes of women in the 1920s were exemplified by
Adopting the "flapper" lifestyle
In the 1920s African Americans became noted contributors to the
Jazz Age
Issei and Nisei are terms that are used to represent
two generations of Japanese immigrants
Although John T. Scopes was convicted in the 1927 Scopes trial, modernists won a major victory when
Scopes' attorney tricked William Jennings Bryan into admitting that not all religious dogma was subject to a single interpretation
In their battle with General Motors, the United Auto Workers developed the effective new technique of
Sit- down strikes
In a 1935 case involving a local poultry business, the Supreme Court ruled that the NRA
unconstitutional, because it violated both the interstate commerce clause and the legislative powers clause of the Constitution
The National Labor Relations Act protected workers by providing them with
the power to form unions and engage in collective bargaining
One of the problems with the New Deal work relief system was that
Females received more cash assistance but less work relief than men
The Works Progress Administration included all the following programs, except
enrolling workers in the military after the completion of projects
The purpose of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was to
provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other big businesses
During the New Deal, blacks became strong supporters of the Democratic party because
the New Deal relief agencies included blacks as recipients
In an attempt to solve the most critical problem of the economy, Roosevelt's first action after taking office was to
close the banks for a 4 day holiday
When the "Little Steel" companies used violence against the unions at the "Memorial Day Massacre" of 1937, the event was significant because it was the
last major management victory achieved through brutal strikebreaking tactics
Between 1929 and 1932, farmers in the Dust Bowl of the South and Midwest experienced all of the following problems except
rapidly rising prices
Herbert Hoover's early response to the Depression included all of the following actions except
lowering tariffs in order to encourage foreigners to buy American products
The purpose of the "Bonus Army" march into Washington, D.C., in 1932 was to
persuade Congress to approve the early payment of bonuses due to World War I veterans
In his first month in office, Roosevelt restored public confidence in the banking system by
persuading Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Act which permitted solvent banks to operate
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 significantly and permanently changed the economic structure of American agriculture by
committing the federal government to subsidizing farm prices up to the parity level
The goals of the Tennessee Valley Authority included all of the following except
improving railroad transportation
The original creators of social security thought of it as
"insurance," with benefits based on paying those who earned the money by making contributions
Hoover responded to the domestic crisis in 1931 by asking Congress to
increase funding for financial institutions to prevent mortgage foreclosure
When dealing with the interests of women, the New Deal
accepted the prevailing cultural norm of women as secondary to the male in the workplace
The steady rise in stock prices between the spring of 1928 and the fall of 1929 was caused by
the easy credit policies of brokerage firms
The Great Depression was caused by all of the following factors except
American industries and banks were not involved in the European economy
The final outcome of the "Bonus Army" march was that Congress gave the marchers
nothing, and the president authorized the use of military force to make them leave
The most popular radio shows, movies, and literature of the Depression reflected America's desire to
escape the economic problems of the day
The establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority was based on the political theory that the federal government should
become the chief architect of economic planning
The "Roosevelt recession" may have been the result of
Roosevelt's decision to cut spending
In the Scottsboro case of the 1930s, all of the following events occurred except
the youths eventually were acquitted by one of the juries that heard the case
The U.S. government interned many Japanese Americans in "relocation camps" because
many American military leaders unjustly regarded them as a threat to the security of the West Coast
At the Washington Conference of 1921, the United States proposed and obtained a treaty to
prevent a naval arms race among the major world powers
When the United States used the atomic bomb against Japan at the end of World War II, the president
apparently acted to end the war quickly without having to invade Japan
When the Americans and the British inflicted major defeats on the Italian Army during 1943, the Italians responded by
removing Mussolini from power and switching to the Allied side
During World War II, the majority of Americans experienced
profound changes in the social and political structure of their country
During World War II, the U.S. government used all the following means to control unions except
allowing the president to draft workers into government service
In the case Korematsu v. U.S., the Supreme Court ruled that
the internment of Japanese Americans was constitutional
Which pair of aggressor nation and invaded nation is incorrect for the 1930's?
Japan and Korea
The bombing at Pearl Harbor
Provoked the United States to declare war on Japan
The Allied invasion of France was postponed until 1944 for all the following reasons except
losses to the Japanese required diverting troops to the Pacific
During the final days of World War II, German troops mounted their last serious resistance in western Europe at the Battle of
the Bulge
During World War II, changes to American domestic life included
a rapid industrialization of some of the western states
The first American offensive operation in the Pacific occurred
on Guadalcanal Island
The Tripartite Pact
united Italy, Germany, and Japan in a defensive alliance
One area in which the Allies had superior technological quality was
in the success of creating effective code-breaking technology
Throughout most of the 1930s, the United States was unwilling to commit itself to working with other countries to restore stability to the world. This attitude was reflected in its foreign policy of
isolationism
From 1936 to 1938, Great Britain and France responded to Germany's occupation of various countries in Europe by
pursuing a policy of giving Adolf Hitler what he wanted
During World War II, Mexican Americans experienced
a small number of violent clashes between them and Anglo-American residents of the West
During the Nazi program of exterminating the Jews in Europe, American officials
were more concerned with the larger goal of winning the war than with the fate of the Jews
World War II began when Britain and France declared war on Germany after its invasion of
Poland
In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States should
use its power internationally to further its own interests
The United States began development of the atomic bomb because its leaders
were afraid the Nazis would develop one first
The Sino-Japanese War foreshadowed
the horror and atrocities of World War II
In the United States, World War II brought a number of important social consequences, including a decrease in the number of
teenagers enrolled in high school
As the Japanese continued their aggression against Asian countries in 1940 and 1941, President Roosevelt
tried to apply economic pressure by cutting them off from American supplies
The fascist who came to power first was
Benito Mussolini of Italy
During World War II, the first important Allied victory in the Pacific occurred
at the Battle of Coral Sea
Adolf Hitler's principles for Germany included all the following, except
negotiating a reduction in reparations and paying them in full
Compared with women who worked outside the home before 1939, the new working women of World War II were more likely to be
engaged in heavy industrial work
For African-Americans, World War II led to a significant decrease in
the number willing to accept a status of second-class citizen
During World War II, the status of Chinese Americans in American society
improved considerably
During World War II, women who worked outside the home concentrated in
governmental jobs
In 1944, the Japanese lost their capacity to continue a serious naval war at the Battle of
Leyte Gulf
According to revisionist historians such as Charles Beard, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was
the result of a deliberate United States plan to maneuver the Japanese into firing the first shot
In the early 1930s, a step toward World War II occurred in Asia when Japan adopted a territorially aggressive policy toward
China
According to the author of the textbook, the American fleet was caught by surprise when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor because
a combination of confusion and miscalculation caused the government to overlook indications that an attack was imminent
When the Roosevelt administration decided that the United States would no longer directly intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries, the new approach became known as
the Good Neighbor Policy
During 1942, the United States launched its first major effort against the Germans when it
worked with the British in launching a major offensive in North Africa
During World War II, the Allies split Europe into two theaters of operation, with
the Americans and the British fighting in the western half and the Soviets fighting in the eastern half
The Kellogg-Briand Pact idealistically declared an end to
war as an instrument of national policy
Despite a wartime alliance, postwar Soviet-American relations deteriorated for all of the following reasons except
Roosevelt's belief that the Soviet government was inflexible and that Stalin was unreasonable
Roosevelt and Churchill had a major disagreement with Stalin at the Teheran Conference regarding
The future status of Poland
At Yalta, the Big Three agreed on all of the following issues except
Creation of a democratic government in Poland with equal representation of procommunist
When Harry Truman assumed Presidency after Franklin Roosevelt 's death, he believed that
Stalin and the Soviet Union were fundamentally untrustworthy
In dealing with the Soviets during the first few months in office, President Truman
Chastised the Soviets for violating the Yalta agreements
During the struggle in China between nationalists and communist after WWII, the United States
Continued to support Chiang Kaishek with money and weapons even when it became clear his cause was lost
Truman's policy of "containment" called for the United States to
Support free people who were resisting communist expansion
Above all other reasons, policy makers supported the Marshall Plan because they
Feared that the shaky pro-American governments in the western Europe might fall under communist control
The National Security Act of 1947 contained all of the following except
Creating the Atomic Energy Commission to oversee and speed atomic research
In 1948, Stalin initiated the Berlin Blockade in response to
The merging of the American, British, and French zones of Germany to create a new West Germany Republic
The history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization involved all of the following events except
The United States did not ratify the charter until a decade after the organization was formed
The National Security Council report resulted from all of the following events except
The invasion of South Korea by communist North Korean forces
The National Security Council report represented
A strengthening of America's containment policy
The Korean War began when
North Korean forces invaded South Korea
The nation's most prominent leader of the crusade against domestic subversion was
Joseph McCarthy
The United States refused to support the British, French, and Israelis in the 1956 Suez invasion because
It feared that the Arab nations would become allies of the Soviet Union
When the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 aircraft over its country, the incident
Gave Nikita. Khrushchev the pretext he needed to break off the Paris summit discussions concerning Berlin
The root causes of the hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union after WWII
Are still heavily debated and cannot be blamed on one single event
Kennedy believed that the future struggle against communism would occur mainly in the
Developing countries of the Third World
Success for the 1961 American-aid invasion of Cuba depended on
An anti-Castro uprising in Cuba
The Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved when
Kennedy accepted Khrushchev's offer to remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade the island
Kennedy decided to remove Diem from the presidency of South Vietnam when
Diem launched attacks on the country's Buddhists
The American commitment in Vietnam increased substantially when
President Johnson asked for and Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Public opinion turned radically against the Vietnam War after the
Viet Cong launched the 1968 Tet Offevsive
Nixon's approach to U.S. policy in Vietnam finally resulted in a negotiated settlement (the Paris accords), which provided for
The release of several hundred American prisoners of war
During the two years following the American pullout of troops from South Vietnam, the North Vietnamese
Occupied the South and established a united Vietnam under the control of Hanoii
Nixon's efforts to establish a new relationship with China were a result of his belief that Communist China
Must be strengthened to counteract the power of the Soviet Union
American actions in the settlement of the Yom Kipper War of 1973 resulted in
An oil embargo against the United States by the Arab nations
President Carter's diplomatic efforts in relieving the tensions between Egypt and Israeli resulted in
A formal peace treaty between Egypt and Israel
The Iran-contra scandal seriously damaged the Reagan administration's reputation when it revealed that the United States
Used the money from the sale of arms to Iran to aid the contras in Nicaragua
During the Gulf War the United States and its allies fought the military forces of
Iraq
Before Sept.11,2001, most Americans thought that terrorism
Was a problem that mainly plagued other nations
In his first State of the Union address, President Bush identified the "axis of evil" as including all of the following except
The Communist party in Russia