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As president, Warren G. Harding had all of the following weaknesses except

his personal involvement in fraud and corruption within the government

The United States truly became a consumer society during the 1920s, which meant that Americans

bought things both for their needs and their pleasures

During the 1920s, some employers adopted a system known as "welfare capitalism," which

provided workers with fringe benefits such as shorter workweeks and retirement pensions

Herbert Hoover's presidency saw the demise of the New Era, because less than one year after being inaugurated

the United States entered its longest and most severe economic crisis

The National Origins Act of 1924 banned immigration entirely from

east Asia

As president, Calvin Coolidge was

a puritanical individual who believed the government should not interfere with the life of the nation

Langston Hughes of the "Harlem Renaissance" movement penned the line

"I am a Negro—and beautiful"

The first feature-length film to feature "talkie" sound was

The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson

So-called "pink-collar" jobs included all the following, except


The dilemma of American labor in the 1920s lay in the poor distribution of wealth and purchasing power, because wages

rose, but many workers still lived at or below a minimum living standard

During the 1920s, the growth in agricultural production resulted in all of the following developments except

an increase in demand

The Teapot Dome Scandal is associated with

Warren Harding

During the 1920s, the United States experienced an economic boom that included

a substantial increase in the nation's manufacturing output

Bruce Barton, author of The Man Nobody Knows, promoted the idea of divine approval for advertising and salesmanship when he depicted

Jesus as prophet and "super salesman" who was concerned with living a full and rewarding life in this world

The revived Ku Klux Klan of the 1920s opposed all of the following EXCEPT

Republican Politicians

The "noble experiment" of prohibition resulted in all of the following developments except

the creation of a very large force of government agents to enforce the law

The changing attitudes of women in the 1920s were exemplified by

Adopting the "flapper" lifestyle

In the 1920s African Americans became noted contributors to the

Jazz Age

Issei and Nisei are terms that are used to represent

two generations of Japanese immigrants

Although John T. Scopes was convicted in the 1927 Scopes trial, modernists won a major victory when

Scopes' attorney tricked William Jennings Bryan into admitting that not all religious dogma was subject to a single interpretation

In their battle with General Motors, the United Auto Workers developed the effective new technique of

Sit- down strikes

In a 1935 case involving a local poultry business, the Supreme Court ruled that the NRA

unconstitutional, because it violated both the interstate commerce clause and the legislative powers clause of the Constitution

The National Labor Relations Act protected workers by providing them with

the power to form unions and engage in collective bargaining

One of the problems with the New Deal work relief system was that

Females received more cash assistance but less work relief than men

The Works Progress Administration included all the following programs, except

enrolling workers in the military after the completion of projects

The purpose of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation was to

provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other big businesses

During the New Deal, blacks became strong supporters of the Democratic party because

the New Deal relief agencies included blacks as recipients

In an attempt to solve the most critical problem of the economy, Roosevelt's first action after taking office was to

close the banks for a 4 day holiday

When the "Little Steel" companies used violence against the unions at the "Memorial Day Massacre" of 1937, the event was significant because it was the

last major management victory achieved through brutal strikebreaking tactics

Between 1929 and 1932, farmers in the Dust Bowl of the South and Midwest experienced all of the following problems except

rapidly rising prices

Herbert Hoover's early response to the Depression included all of the following actions except

lowering tariffs in order to encourage foreigners to buy American products

The purpose of the "Bonus Army" march into Washington, D.C., in 1932 was to

persuade Congress to approve the early payment of bonuses due to World War I veterans

In his first month in office, Roosevelt restored public confidence in the banking system by

persuading Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Act which permitted solvent banks to operate

The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933 significantly and permanently changed the economic structure of American agriculture by

committing the federal government to subsidizing farm prices up to the parity level

The goals of the Tennessee Valley Authority included all of the following except

improving railroad transportation

The original creators of social security thought of it as

"insurance," with benefits based on paying those who earned the money by making contributions

Hoover responded to the domestic crisis in 1931 by asking Congress to

increase funding for financial institutions to prevent mortgage foreclosure

When dealing with the interests of women, the New Deal

accepted the prevailing cultural norm of women as secondary to the male in the workplace

The steady rise in stock prices between the spring of 1928 and the fall of 1929 was caused by

the easy credit policies of brokerage firms

The Great Depression was caused by all of the following factors except

American industries and banks were not involved in the European economy

The final outcome of the "Bonus Army" march was that Congress gave the marchers

nothing, and the president authorized the use of military force to make them leave

The most popular radio shows, movies, and literature of the Depression reflected America's desire to

escape the economic problems of the day

The establishment of the Tennessee Valley Authority was based on the political theory that the federal government should

become the chief architect of economic planning

The "Roosevelt recession" may have been the result of

Roosevelt's decision to cut spending

In the Scottsboro case of the 1930s, all of the following events occurred except

the youths eventually were acquitted by one of the juries that heard the case

The U.S. government interned many Japanese Americans in "relocation camps" because

many American military leaders unjustly regarded them as a threat to the security of the West Coast

At the Washington Conference of 1921, the United States proposed and obtained a treaty to

prevent a naval arms race among the major world powers

When the United States used the atomic bomb against Japan at the end of World War II, the president

apparently acted to end the war quickly without having to invade Japan

When the Americans and the British inflicted major defeats on the Italian Army during 1943, the Italians responded by

removing Mussolini from power and switching to the Allied side

During World War II, the majority of Americans experienced

profound changes in the social and political structure of their country

During World War II, the U.S. government used all the following means to control unions except

allowing the president to draft workers into government service

In the case Korematsu v. U.S., the Supreme Court ruled that

the internment of Japanese Americans was constitutional

Which pair of aggressor nation and invaded nation is incorrect for the 1930's?

Japan and Korea

The bombing at Pearl Harbor

Provoked the United States to declare war on Japan

The Allied invasion of France was postponed until 1944 for all the following reasons except

losses to the Japanese required diverting troops to the Pacific

During the final days of World War II, German troops mounted their last serious resistance in western Europe at the Battle of

the Bulge

During World War II, changes to American domestic life included

a rapid industrialization of some of the western states

The first American offensive operation in the Pacific occurred

on Guadalcanal Island

The Tripartite Pact

united Italy, Germany, and Japan in a defensive alliance

One area in which the Allies had superior technological quality was

in the success of creating effective code-breaking technology

Throughout most of the 1930s, the United States was unwilling to commit itself to working with other countries to restore stability to the world. This attitude was reflected in its foreign policy of


From 1936 to 1938, Great Britain and France responded to Germany's occupation of various countries in Europe by

pursuing a policy of giving Adolf Hitler what he wanted

During World War II, Mexican Americans experienced

a small number of violent clashes between them and Anglo-American residents of the West

During the Nazi program of exterminating the Jews in Europe, American officials

were more concerned with the larger goal of winning the war than with the fate of the Jews

World War II began when Britain and France declared war on Germany after its invasion of


In the late 1910s and early 1920s, Henry Cabot Lodge argued that the United States should

use its power internationally to further its own interests

The United States began development of the atomic bomb because its leaders

were afraid the Nazis would develop one first

The Sino-Japanese War foreshadowed

the horror and atrocities of World War II

In the United States, World War II brought a number of important social consequences, including a decrease in the number of

teenagers enrolled in high school

As the Japanese continued their aggression against Asian countries in 1940 and 1941, President Roosevelt

tried to apply economic pressure by cutting them off from American supplies

The fascist who came to power first was

Benito Mussolini of Italy

During World War II, the first important Allied victory in the Pacific occurred

at the Battle of Coral Sea

Adolf Hitler's principles for Germany included all the following, except

negotiating a reduction in reparations and paying them in full

Compared with women who worked outside the home before 1939, the new working women of World War II were more likely to be

engaged in heavy industrial work

For African-Americans, World War II led to a significant decrease in

the number willing to accept a status of second-class citizen

During World War II, the status of Chinese Americans in American society

improved considerably

During World War II, women who worked outside the home concentrated in

governmental jobs

In 1944, the Japanese lost their capacity to continue a serious naval war at the Battle of

Leyte Gulf

According to revisionist historians such as Charles Beard, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor was

the result of a deliberate United States plan to maneuver the Japanese into firing the first shot

In the early 1930s, a step toward World War II occurred in Asia when Japan adopted a territorially aggressive policy toward


According to the author of the textbook, the American fleet was caught by surprise when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor because

a combination of confusion and miscalculation caused the government to overlook indications that an attack was imminent

When the Roosevelt administration decided that the United States would no longer directly intervene in the affairs of Latin American countries, the new approach became known as

the Good Neighbor Policy

During 1942, the United States launched its first major effort against the Germans when it

worked with the British in launching a major offensive in North Africa

During World War II, the Allies split Europe into two theaters of operation, with

the Americans and the British fighting in the western half and the Soviets fighting in the eastern half

The Kellogg-Briand Pact idealistically declared an end to

war as an instrument of national policy

Despite a wartime alliance, postwar Soviet-American relations deteriorated for all of the following reasons except

Roosevelt's belief that the Soviet government was inflexible and that Stalin was unreasonable

Roosevelt and Churchill had a major disagreement with Stalin at the Teheran Conference regarding

The future status of Poland

At Yalta, the Big Three agreed on all of the following issues except

Creation of a democratic government in Poland with equal representation of procommunist

When Harry Truman assumed Presidency after Franklin Roosevelt 's death, he believed that

Stalin and the Soviet Union were fundamentally untrustworthy

In dealing with the Soviets during the first few months in office, President Truman

Chastised the Soviets for violating the Yalta agreements

During the struggle in China between nationalists and communist after WWII, the United States

Continued to support Chiang Kaishek with money and weapons even when it became clear his cause was lost

Truman's policy of "containment" called for the United States to

Support free people who were resisting communist expansion

Above all other reasons, policy makers supported the Marshall Plan because they

Feared that the shaky pro-American governments in the western Europe might fall under communist control

The National Security Act of 1947 contained all of the following except

Creating the Atomic Energy Commission to oversee and speed atomic research

In 1948, Stalin initiated the Berlin Blockade in response to

The merging of the American, British, and French zones of Germany to create a new West Germany Republic

The history of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization involved all of the following events except

The United States did not ratify the charter until a decade after the organization was formed

The National Security Council report resulted from all of the following events except

The invasion of South Korea by communist North Korean forces

The National Security Council report represented

A strengthening of America's containment policy

The Korean War began when

North Korean forces invaded South Korea

The nation's most prominent leader of the crusade against domestic subversion was

Joseph McCarthy

The United States refused to support the British, French, and Israelis in the 1956 Suez invasion because

It feared that the Arab nations would become allies of the Soviet Union

When the Soviet Union shot down a U-2 aircraft over its country, the incident

Gave Nikita. Khrushchev the pretext he needed to break off the Paris summit discussions concerning Berlin

The root causes of the hostility between the United States and the Soviet Union after WWII

Are still heavily debated and cannot be blamed on one single event

Kennedy believed that the future struggle against communism would occur mainly in the

Developing countries of the Third World

Success for the 1961 American-aid invasion of Cuba depended on

An anti-Castro uprising in Cuba

The Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved when

Kennedy accepted Khrushchev's offer to remove the missiles from Cuba in exchange for Kennedy's pledge not to invade the island

Kennedy decided to remove Diem from the presidency of South Vietnam when

Diem launched attacks on the country's Buddhists

The American commitment in Vietnam increased substantially when

President Johnson asked for and Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Public opinion turned radically against the Vietnam War after the

Viet Cong launched the 1968 Tet Offevsive

Nixon's approach to U.S. policy in Vietnam finally resulted in a negotiated settlement (the Paris accords), which provided for

The release of several hundred American prisoners of war

During the two years following the American pullout of troops from South Vietnam, the North Vietnamese

Occupied the South and established a united Vietnam under the control of Hanoii

Nixon's efforts to establish a new relationship with China were a result of his belief that Communist China

Must be strengthened to counteract the power of the Soviet Union

American actions in the settlement of the Yom Kipper War of 1973 resulted in

An oil embargo against the United States by the Arab nations

President Carter's diplomatic efforts in relieving the tensions between Egypt and Israeli resulted in

A formal peace treaty between Egypt and Israel

The Iran-contra scandal seriously damaged the Reagan administration's reputation when it revealed that the United States

Used the money from the sale of arms to Iran to aid the contras in Nicaragua

During the Gulf War the United States and its allies fought the military forces of


Before Sept.11,2001, most Americans thought that terrorism

Was a problem that mainly plagued other nations

In his first State of the Union address, President Bush identified the "axis of evil" as including all of the following except

The Communist party in Russia

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