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170 terms

III. The Thoracic Cavity

Exam 4
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What is the cervical fascia above the first rib?
Superior boundary of the thoracic cavity
What is the superior boundary of the thoracic cavity?
Cervical fascia above the first rib
What is the inferior boundary of the thoracic cavity?
Diaphragm
What originates at the xiphoid process, ribs 7-12, & the anterior surface of lumbar vertebrae?
Diaphragm
What originates here: xiphoid process, ribs 7-12, & anterior surface of lumbar vertebrae
Diaphragm
What is the anterior boundary of the thoracic cavity?
Sternum
What form the posterior boundary of the thoracic cavity?
Thoracic vertebrae
What form the lateral boundary of the thoracic cavity?
Ribs & intercostal muscles
What thoracic boundary is formed by the sternum?
Anterior boundary
What thoracic boundary is formed by the thoracic vertebrae?
Posterior boundary
What thoracic boundary is formed by the ribs & intercostal muscles?
Lateral boundary
What are a double-layered membrane formed from epithelium & connective tissue?
Pleurae
What is the potential space formed between the visceral & parietal pleura?
Pleural cavity
How many types of pleura are found in the thoracic cavity?
2
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HAYYY
What is the pleural cavity?
potential space formed between the visceral & parietal pleura
What are the types of pleura found in the thoracic cavity?
Parietal pleura & visceral pleura
What is the portion of the pleura, which lines the chest cavity?
Parietal pleura
What is the portion of the pleura, which covers the lungs?
Visceral pleura
What is the area between the right & left lung?
Mediastinum
What is the mediastinum laterally bounded by?
lungs
What is the mediastinum anteriorly bounded by?
sternum
What is the mediastinum posteriorly bounded by?
thoracic vertebrae
What is the mediastinum inferiorly bounded by/
diaphragm
What structures are found within the mediastinum?
heart & great vessels
What is an endocrine gland overlying the anterior surface of the heart?
Thymus
What continues from the neck into the mediastinum & divides into the right & left primary bronchi?
Trachea
What is a ridge on the inner surface of the distal trachea at the bifurcation into the primary bronchi?
Carina
What does the trachea divide into?
right & left primary bronchi
What is posterior to the trachea & is continuous at its inferior end with the stomach?
Esophagus
What join at the esophageal sphincter, just inferior to the diaphragm?
stomach & esophagus
Where do the stomach & esophagus join at?
Esophageal sphincter
What courses cranially through the thoracic cavity along the left, posterior chest wall?
Thoracic duct
What enters the blood circulatory system & empties lymph into the junction of the left internal jugular vein & left subclavian vein?
Thoracic duct
What nerves continue from the neck & pass through the mediastinum & innervate visceral structures of the thorax, including the heart?
Right & left vagus nerves (CN X)
What innervate the diaphragm in the thoracic cavity?
Phrenic nerves
What nerves does the phrenic nerve arise from?
Cervical nerves 3, 4, & 5
What are paired organs consisting primarily of alveoli & branching from bronchial tubes?
Lungs
Which lung has 3 lobes?
Right lung
Which lung has only 2 lobes/
Left lung
What is the superiorly pointing, cone-shaped part of the lung?
Apex of the lung
What is a groove in the medial surface of each lung through which blood vessels & bronchi enter & exit the lung?
Hilus of the lung
What consists of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary veins, primary bronchi, nerves & lymph vessels?
Root of the lung
What is the part of the lung that touches the inner side of the ribs & intercostal muscles?
Costal surface of the lung
What aspect of the lung faces the heart?
Mediastinal surface of the lung
What contains the root of the lung?
Mediastinal surface of the lung
What aspect of the lung is a concave, inferior surface that touches the superior border of the diaphragm?
Diaphragmatic surface
What are the two lobes of the left lung?
Superior & inferior lobes
What separates the inferior from the superior lobe of the left lung?
Oblique fissure
What are two distinct impressions on the medial surface of the left lung?
Cardiac impression & groove for the aorta
What are the 3 lobes of the right lung?
superior, middle, & inferior lobes
What separates the superior & middle lobes of the right lung?
oblique
What separates the inferior lobe from the middle & superior lobes of the right lung?
Oblique fissure
What are a series of successively branching & increasingly tiny passageways within each lung?
Bronchi
What transport inhaled air to the respiratory portion of the lungs?
Bronchi
What enter the lung at the hilus?
Primary bronchi
How many primary bronchi enter each lung?
1
What branch from the primary bronchi to each lobe of the lung?
Secondary bronchi
Which lung has 2 secondary bronchi?
Left lung (two lobes)
Which lung has 3 secondary bronchi?
Right lung (three lobes)
What are smaller tubes branching to each segment of lung tissue?
Segmental (tertiary) bronchi
What are a microscopic series of successively branching & increasingly tiny passageways for inhaled air?
Bronchioles
What are continuous with the tertiary bronchi?
largest bronchioles
What is a fist-sized muscular organ located in the mediastinum, which pumps blood through blood vessels to all organs & tissues of the body?
Heart
What is divided into pulmonary & systemic circuits?
Cardiovascular system
What is the cardiovascular system divided into?
pulmonary & systemic curcuits
What circuit involves the right side of the heart?
Pulmonary circuit
What leaves the right ventricle & carries deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary arteries to the lungs?
Pulmonary trunk
What return fresh oxygenated blood to the left atrium?
Pulmonary veins
What circuit involves the left side of the heart?
Systemic circuit
In the systemic circuit, oxygenated blood is pumped through what to reach the left ventricle?
bicuspid valve
In the systemic circuit, blood is pumped through the _______ _________, through the aorta, & throughout the body.
Aortic semilunar valve
What is the heart enclosed in?
tough fibrous connective tissue sac
What is the most external layer of the sac enclosing the heart?
Fibrous pericardium
What is the layer found beneath the fibrous pericardium?
Serous pericardium
What is a double-layered sac comprised of the parietal pericardium & visceral pericardium?
Serous pericardium
Which layer is the epicardium of the heart?
Visceral pericardium
What is located between the visceral & parietal layers of the serous pericardium & contains a thin layer of serous fluid?
Pericardial cavity
Where is the pericardial cavity located?
between the visceral & parietal layers of the serous pericardium
What can be found in the pericardial cavity?
thin layer of serous fluid
What does the aorta rise from?
Left ventricle
What is a continuous vessel, but has separately named parts in each of the body?
Aorta
What are the regions of the aorta within the thoracic cavity?
Ascending aorta, aortic arch, & thoracic aorta
What are the only branches extending from the ascending aorta?
Coronary arteries
What do the coronary arteries branch from?
Ascending aorta
What is the curved portion of the aorta?
Aortic arch
What are the branches extending from the aortic arch?
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, & left subclavian artery
Brachiocephalic artery, left common carotid artery, & left subclavian artery all branch from what?
Aortic arch
What is the first branch of the aortic arch?
Brachiocephalic artery
What branch of the aortic arch divides into the right subclavian & right common carotid artery?
Brachiocephalic artery
What does the brachiocephalic artery branch into?
Right subclavian & right common carotid artery
What is the middle artery arising from the aortic arch?
Left common carotid artery
What branch of the aortic arch splits into the left external & left internal carotid artery?
Left common carotid artery
What is the third branch arising from the aortic arch?
Left subclavian artery
What branch of the aortic arch supplies blood to the upper limb & structures of the neck?
Left subclavian artery
What is the first branch from the subclavian artery?
vertebral artery
The vertebral artery is the first branch arising from what artery?
Subclavian artery
What arises from the right ventricle & divides into the right pulmonary & left pulmonary arteries?
Pulmonary trunk
What connect with the mediastinal surface of the lungs?
Pulmonary arteries
Which surface of the lungs connect with the pulmonary arteries?
Mediastinal surface
What return blood to the right atrium?
Superior vena cava & inferior vena cava
To where do the superior vena cava & inferior vena cava return blood?
Right atrium
What is returning deoxygenated blood from the head, neck, & arms?
Superior vena cava
What is returning deoxygenated blood from the abdomen & lower extremities?
Inferior vena cava
What is a J-shaped vein that returns blood from tghe chest wall & usually drains into the superior vena cava?
Azygos vein
What are the two superior chambers of the heart?
Right & left atrium
What are considered to be the "receiving chambers" of the heart?
Right & left atrium
Which atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body?
Right atrium
Which atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs?
Left atrium
What are "ear-shaped" expansions of the atria? (Atria is plural for atrium)
Auricles
What are the two inferior chambers of the heart?
Right & left venticle
Which ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary trunk into the pulmonary arteries & to the lungs?
Right ventricle
Which ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to the body?
Left ventricle
How many layers compose the heart wall?
3
What is the innermost layer of the heart wall, made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?
Endocardium
What is the middle layer of the heart wall, formed from cardiac muscle tissue?
Myocardium
What is the outer layer of the heart wall, made of simple squamous epithelial tissue?
Epicardium
What is the epicardium composed of?
SSE (Simple squamous epithelial tissue)
What is the myocardium composed of?
Cardiac muscle tissue
What is the endocardium composed of?
SSE (Simple squamous epithelial tissue)
What divide the heart lengthwise?
Septa
What separates the right atrium from the left atrium?
Interatrial septum
What separates the right ventricle from the left ventricle?
Interventricular septum
How many types of valves does the heart possess?
2
What are the 2 types of valves located within the heart?
Atrioventricular & Semilunar valves
What type of valves are located between the atria & ventricles?
Atrioventricular valves
What type of valves are located at the base of the aorta & the base of the pulmonary trunk?
Semilunar valves
What is the remnant of the foramen ovale of the heart, located in the wall of the right atrium?
Fossa ovalis
What is the remnant of the ductus arteriosus, a connection between the pulmonary trunk & the aorta?
Ligamentum arteriosum
What were both shunts in the fetal heart, taking blood away from pulmonary circulation?
foramen ovale & ductus arteriosus
What is an "ear-shaped" expansion of the right atrium on the external surface of the heart?
Right auricle
What is a large vein entering the superior portion of the right atrium?
Superior vena cava
What is a large vein entering the inferior portion of the right atrium?
Inferior vena cava
What is the blood vessel that drains blood from the cardiac veins & back into the right atrium?
Coronary sinus
What travels horizontally along the posterior surface of the heart between the atria & ventricles & enters the right atrium?
Coronary sinus
What is an oval depression in the wall of the right atrium?
Fossa ovalis
What are muscular ridges located on the inner surface of the right auricle & right atrium?
Pectinate muscles
Pectinate muscles are not present in which atrium?
left atrium
What valve has 3 cusps?
Tricuspid valve
What is the valve between the right atrium & right ventricle?
tricuspid valve
What are tendinous cords attached to the inferior surface of the tricuspid valve?
Chordae tendinae
What are cone-shaped extensions of the ventricular myocardium which attach the chordae tendinae to the internal surface of the heart wall?
Papillary muscles
When does the tricuspid valve close?
When the right ventricle contracts
What are muscular ridges within the right ventricle?
Trabeculae carneae
What valve has 3 cusps projecting inferiorly into the right ventricle?
tricuspid valve
What valve does not have chordae tendineae attached to it?
aortic semilunar valve & pulmonary semilunar valve
When does the pulmonary semilunar valve open?
As the right ventricle contracts
What guards the opening to the pulmonary trunk & prevents the back flow of blood into the right ventricle?
Pulmonary semilunar valve
What receives oxygenated blood from 4 pulmonary veins?
Left atrium
What enter the left atrium on the posterior surface of the heart, inferior to the pulmonary arteries?
Pulmonary veins
The left auricle can be found on what surface of the left atrium?
External surface
What do the left auricle & atrium lack?
Pectinate muscles
What is much larger & more muscular than the right ventricle?
Left ventricle
What has 2 cusps & is located between the left atrium & left ventricle?
Bicuspid valve
Where is the aortic semilunar valve located?
base of the aorta
What does the aortic semilunar valve project inferiorly into?
Left ventricle
When does the aortic semilunar valve open?
When the left ventricle contracts
What guards the opening to the aorta & prevents backflow of blood into the left ventricle?
Aortic semilunar valve
What branch from ascending aorta & distribute blood to the myocardium?
Right & left coronary artery
What drain the myocardium & into the coronary sinus?
Cardiac veins
What is a venous structure that drains blood from the cardiac veins into the right atrium?
Coronary sinus
What control heart muscle stimulation intrisically?
Specialized myocardial cells
Where do electrical impulses originate?
Right atrium
Where are the electrical impulses passed to from the right atrium?
walls of the myocardium
What is the "pacemaker" of the heart?
Sinoatrial node
What generates impulses, which are passes the wave of depolarization into the atriventricular bundle?
Sinoatrial node
What is located at the interior portion of the interatrial septum & passes the wave of depolarization into the atrioventricular bundle?
Atrioventricular node
What passes the impulse to the bundle branches?
Atrioventricular bundle
What are located in the interventricular septum & pass the impulse to the Purkinje fibers throughout the ventricular myocardium?
Bundle branches
What take the impulse simultaneously to the papillary muscles & the ventricular myocardium/
Purkinje fibers