Milady's Esthetics Chapter 12 Chemistry Ingredients and Selection

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Cosmetic Act of 1938

Distinguishes between drugs and cosmetics. Drugs affect function or structure, cosmetics promote attractiveness altering the appearance.

Functional Ingredients

Allow products to spread, give them body and texture, and give them a specific form such as a lotion or a cream.

Performance ingredients

actual changes in the appearance of the skin.


Strong performance ingredients intended to improve the skin's health and appearance.


No water.


Fatty materials-plant or animal derived-vehicle or performance ingredient


Coat the skin and reduce friction

Fatty Acids

derived from plant oils or animal fats

fatty alcohols

fatty acids that have been exposed to hydrogen

fatty esters

produced from fatty acids and fatty alcohols


oils chemically combined with silicone and oxygen, leave a noncomedogenic protective film on the surface of the skin.


the tendency of any topical substance to cause or worsen a buildup of dead cells in the follicle.


Reduce the surface tension between the skin and the product.


Primarily a surfactant used to cleanse, form an emulsion to lift dirt and oil from the skin.


surfactants that cause oil and water to mix and form an emulsion

Oil soluble/water soluble

mixable substances


Give products gel like consistency


Thicken creams


Therapeutic use of plant aromas and essential oils


Prevent bacteria and other microorganisms from living in a product.

Chelating Agents

Chemical added to cosmetics to improve the efficiency of a preservative.


substances that inhibit oxidation reactions.

Certified colors

Synthetic, inorganic, metal salts.


substances such as vegetable, pigment, or mineral dyes that give products color.

Noncertified Colors

Organic, plant extracts, natural pigments

Ph Adjuster

acids or alkalies


Dissolve other ingredients


ingredients derived from plants

Healing agents

chamomile, licorice, azulene, and aloe, that heal the skin.


attract water to the skin's surface


Used to improve hydration, plumpness, and smoothness of skin.


Removal of dead corneum cells

Alpha Hydroxy Acids of Beta Hydroxy Acids

Work by loosening the bond between cells in the surface of the corneum


Dissolve keratin proteins on the surface of the skin. Maintain the hydration level of the epidermis

Delivery Systems

Deliver ingredients to specific tissues of the epidermis


Spreading agents and carrying bases nescessary for the formulation of a cosmetic.


Closed lipid bilaryer spheres that encapsulate ingredients, targeted delivery, controled release


Chemical compounds formed by a number of small molecules


Neutralize free radicals before they can attach themselves to the cell membrane and destroy the cell


Help strengthen the immune system and stimulate the metabolism

Tissue Repair Factor (TRF)

Functions as anti inflammatory and moisturizing agent.


Chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in the skin's appearance.


Chains of amino acids used in skin care products to produce changes in the skins appearance

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