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49 terms

World History Chapter 3

"India and China" Glencoe World History Chapter 3
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Himalaya
the highest mountains in the world
Indus River
west of the Ganges River, this river establishes a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of the modern state of Pakistan
Monsoon
a seasonal wind in southern Asia
Harappa
A large ancient city of the Indus civilization, created in present-day Pakistan
Mohenjo Daro
second city in early Harappan civilization south west of Harappa
Aryans
moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into the plains of northern India
Sanskrit
Indo-European language
Varnas
Another word for the social classes in the Caste system that ranked people from high to low
Caste System
Divided Indian society into groups based on a person's birth, wealth, or occupation.
Hinduism
A religion native to India, featuring belief in many gods and reincarnation
Yoga
a method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God
Reincarnation
the rebirth of an individual's soul in a different form after death
Karma
In Hindu belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life
Dharma
in Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in society
Buddhism
a religions doctrine introduced in northern India in the sixth century B.C. by Siddhartha Gautama known as the Buddha, or "Enlightened One"
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Nirvana
ultimate reality
Asoka
The grandson of Chandragupta, who is considered the best leader of the Mauryan Empire.
Silk Road
an ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean (4,000 miles)
pilgrims
people who journey to a religious place
Faxian
Chinese Buddhist monk who traveled to India in search of documents about the teachings of the Buddha
Vedas
Earliest known Indian literature, which contains religious chants and stories that were originally passed down orally from generation to generation and then recorded in Sanskrit after writing developed
Bhagavad Gita
sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle
Kalidasa
one if ancient India's greatest writers during the Gupta era
Aryabhata
most famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire and the first scientist known to have used algebra
Huang He
stretches across China for roughly 2,900 miles also known as the Yellow River; yellow silt for farming
Chang Jiang
(Yangtze River) the longest river in Asia, flowing about 3,400 miles from central China to the Yellow Sea
aristocracy
an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another
Mandate of Heaven
claim by Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority from heaven to rule and to keep order in the universe
Dao
the proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven
Filial Piety
the duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family
Pictographs
picture symbols
Ideographs
chararcters that join 2 or more pictographs to represent an idea
Confucius
known to the chinese as the First Teacher
Confucianism
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
Daoism
a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi
Laozi
founder of Daoism
Legalism
a popular philosophy developed in China toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it proposes that human beings are evil by nature and can only be brought to the correct path by harsh laws
Qin Shihuangdi
first leader of the Qin dynasty
Gobi
Desert that separates China from Mongolia
Xiongnu
a confederation of nomadic tribes from the Gobi area with a ruling class of unknown origin.
Regime
a government in power
censorate
inspectors who checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their jobs
Liu Pang
of peasant origin, but became known by his title of Han Gaozu - Exalted Emperor of Han
Han Wudi
the Martial Emperor of Han, added the regions south of the Chang Jiang
South China Sea
a tropical arm of the Pacific Ocean near southeastern Asia subject to frequent typhoons
Four Noble Truths
the simple message that is the basis of Buddhism
Bodhi
a key step in achieving nirvana, the root of both the word Buddhism and Buddha, means "wisdom"
8 Fold Path
a way to end desire and thus suffering; also know as the Middle Path