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47 terms

physical & chemical changes

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physical properties
properties that can be observed or measeured with out changing the matter into a new substance
4 physical properties
boiling point, melting point, density and color
melting point
temperature at which a solid can turn into a liquid
melting point temperature
0 degrees C, 32 degrees F
boiling point temperature
100 degrees C, 212 degrees F
melting point
the temperature at which a solid begins to melt
examples of physical properties
melting point, boiling point, density, color
examples of chemical properties
ability to burn, ability to rust, ability to tarnish
ability to burn
substance reacting quickly with oxygen to produce heat and light; burning
ability to rust
substance reacting slowly with oxygen to produce a red-orange color on a metal
ability to tarnish
substance slowly reacting with the air to produce a green-greyish color on a metal, usually silver and cooper; statue of liberty
evidences of a physical change
change in state of matter, change in size, shape, color, texture, volume, mass
evidences of a chemical change
production of gas, color change, temperature change, odor production, precipitae formation
precipitate
another word meaning solid
examples of a chemica change
burning wood, burning a candle, metal rusting, tea kettle turning green.
chemical change
change that occurs when a new substance has formed; burning paper
physical change
change that occurs when matter changes physically only (how it looks)
sublimation
when a substance changes directly from a solid to a gas; dry ice, solid air freshners
examples of physical changes
tearing paper, melting ice cream, painting a picture, crushing a desk
atom
smallest particle of an element that still has the properties of that element; has mass amd takes up space
matter
anything that has mas and takes up space
density
physical property that describes the relationship between amss and volume
mass
how much matter is in an object; measured with a triple beam balance; unit is grams
volume
how much space matter occupies; measured with a graduated cylinder; uints are mL or cubic cm
element
pure substances that cannot be changed into simpler substances
element
composed of one kind of atom
compound
pure substance, chemically combined, that is composed of two or more elements
compound
also called a molecule
mixture
composed of two or more different substances that retain or keep their individual properties
mixture
can be seperated by physical means
seperation by physical means
filtration, evaporation, sifting
2 types of mixtures
heterogeneous & homogeneous
heterogeneous mixture
not uniform (evenly mixed) throughout; substances are visible
examples of heterogeneous mixture
pizza, trail mix, cereal, female's purse
homogeneous mixture
uniform throughout, the substances anre evenly mixed and are not visible
solution
another name for a homogeneous mixture
examples of homogeneous mixture
toothpaste, hair gel, ketchup, fog
independent variable
variable that the scienctist has control of and changes; testable variable
dependent variable
variable that changes in response to the independent variable
control variable
factor that does not recieve the IV; standard for comparison
constants
factors in the experiment that never changes
states of matter
the different phases matter goes through
melting
the process of a solid turning to a liquid
freezing
the process of a liquid turning to a solid
evaporation
the process of a liquid turning to a gas (puddles of water outside)
mathematical equation for density
D=m/v
boiling
the process of a liquid turning to a gas (water in a pot getting hot and forming bubbles on top of a stove)