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Protein synthesis

formation of proteins using information contained in DNA, carried by mRNA

Coding strand

the strand of DNA that is not used for transcription

Template strand

complementary to coding strand, provides template for strand of mRNA


sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA


sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait


proteins that DNA wraps around


DNA segment on gene that recognizes the enzyme RNA polymerase and thus begins transcription

Stop signal

DNA segment on gene that indicates the end of transcription

Gene activation

Disruping H bonds between DNA strands, removing histones that guard promotor


process by which a DNA template is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule


process in which mRNA is translated into a protein


change in the nucleotide sequence


stage of transcription in which RNA nucleotides are added to the chain


stage of transcription in which the mRNA strand is released


sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein


sequence of DNA that is involved in coding for a protein


type of RNA that is the template for protein synthesis


type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome


type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome


binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain


binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain


binding site on ribosome where tRNA is discharged from ribosome

Point mutation

mutation through change in one nucleotide


mutation involving the addition of a nucleotide


mutation involving the deletion of a nucleotide

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