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25 terms

Protein synthesis

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Protein synthesis
formation of proteins using information contained in DNA, carried by mRNA
Coding strand
the strand of DNA that is not used for transcription
Template strand
complementary to coding strand, provides template for strand of mRNA
Codon
sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA
Genes
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
Histones
proteins that DNA wraps around
Promotor
DNA segment on gene that recognizes the enzyme RNA polymerase and thus begins transcription
Stop signal
DNA segment on gene that indicates the end of transcription
Gene activation
Disruping H bonds between DNA strands, removing histones that guard promotor
Transcription
process by which a DNA template is used to produce a single-stranded RNA molecule
Translation
process in which mRNA is translated into a protein
Mutation
change in the nucleotide sequence
Elongation
stage of transcription in which RNA nucleotides are added to the chain
Termination
stage of transcription in which the mRNA strand is released
Introns
sequence of DNA that is not involved in coding for a protein
Extrons
sequence of DNA that is involved in coding for a protein
mRNA
type of RNA that is the template for protein synthesis
rRNA
type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
tRNA
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
A-site
binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
P-site
binding site on ribosome which holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain
E-site
binding site on ribosome where tRNA is discharged from ribosome
Point mutation
mutation through change in one nucleotide
Insertion
mutation involving the addition of a nucleotide
Deletion
mutation involving the deletion of a nucleotide