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Basic Genetics Terms

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Heredity
The passing of characteristics from one generation to the next
Genetics
The study of genetic material and how this material effect the characteristics of life forms. Also, the scientific study of heredity.
Philosophy
The branch of academic study devoted to systematic examination of basic concepts such as knowledge, truth, existence, reality, causality, and freedom. The study of knowledge.
Natural philosophy
Science
Philosophy of Science
The branch of philosophy that sets the boundaries of science. Defines what is or not science.
Theory of gravity
Any two things with mass are attracted to each other
Inertia
is the tendency of an object to remain station or continue in a straight line unless acted up on.
Falsifiable
If we can imagine observations that we could make in the physical universe could disprove the idea.
Concept Gene
Gene as nucleic acid segment, DNA or RNA that can ultimately direct the production of RNA that affects the phenotype It includes at least one region of nucleotides.
Locus
the location on the DNA where the code for a particular characteristic is found.
Zygote
the single cell that results from the fusion of sperm and egg. (single cell embryo)
Allele
The particular sequence of nitrogenous bases found at a locus that codes for a particular characteristic.
Genotype
The list of alleles found at the locus or loci under consideration.
Phenotype
The characteristics of the life form other than the genotype. It includes the morphological, physiological, biochemical, behavioral characteristic.
Phenotype Variation
All the life forms in a population usually do not have the same phenotype
Principle of Allocation
No individual can collect an infinite number of resources. There are trade offs in organisms as it lives in different environmental types.
Norm of Reaction
Of a genotype is the total range of phenotypes produced by the genotypes in all possible environments
Drosophila melanogaster
fruit fly
Developmental Noise
random effects in development (usually at the molecular level) that lead to variation in phenotypes
Biotin
the vitamin essential for Drosophilia growth
Development Canalization
The process that buffers the development of the organism
Collinsia grandiflora
a plant with two cotyledons
Arabidopsis thaliana
first flowering plant ever sequenced
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the inability to break the amino acid phenylalanine.
Neurospora
a haploid fungus
Galactosemia
an autosomal recessive disease characterized by the inability to break the sugar galactose
Tay-Sachs
A rare human disease in which toxic substances accumulate in nerve cells. More frequent in Jewish sects in Eastern Europe.
Cystic Fibrosis
A rare recessive disease in which thick mucus builds up in the lungs.
Endosymbiotic Theory
The prokaryotic ancestors of plastids and mitochondria probably gained entry into the host cell as undigested prey or internal parasites.
Goal of Genetic Analysis
A goal of genetic analysis is to identify all the genes that affect a specific phenotype and to understand their genetic, cellular, developmental, and molecular roles.
Pleiotropic
The locus affect more than one trait
Complete Dominance
When the heterozygote has the same phenotype as one of the two homozygotes
Incomplete Dominance
When the heterozygote has a phenotype that is immediate between two homozygotes
Codominance
When each of the two alleles produces its full phenotype in the heterozygote
Multiple Allelism
Refers to more than two alleles at a locus