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destruction or removal of all microorganisms by use of heat, radiation, filtration, or chemical methods, kills everything
use of physical process or chemical agent to destroy vegetative microbes and viruses. Applied to inanimate surfaces, medical equipment, and man-made objects.
-Any cleaning technique that mechanically removes microorganisms and other debris to reduce contamination to safe levels. Uses compounds such as soap.
-Used in restaurants, dairies, breweries, and other food industries
-Numbers of microbes on human skin are reduced by: scrubbing, immersion in chemicals, or both.
-water-based solutions that don't solidify at temperatures above freezing
-tend to flow freely when container is tilted
-Growth occurs throughout container
-these media are called broths
-clot like at room temperature
-contain any amount of solidifying agent-agar or gelatin
-Used to determine motility of bacteria
-Inoculated by stabbing the center of the medium with inoculating needle
-Dispensed in Petri plates
-provide firm surface for growth
-Isolation and culturing of bacteria and fungi
Chemical content of media
-contain pure organic and inorganic compounds
-chemical content specified by exact formula
-standardized and reproducible
-one or more components of a given media isn't chemically defined
-cannot be represented by an exact chemical formula
-extracts from animals, plants, yeast, cells, tissues, ect.
General purpose media
-grow broad spectrum of microbes that don't have special growth requirement
-nutrient agar and broth
-brain-heart infusion agar
-Trypticase soy agar (TSA)
-contain complex organic substances such as blood, serum, hemoglobin, or special growth factors
-Contain one or more agents that inhibit the growth of a certain microbe or microbes
-favor or select a certain microbe and allows it to grow
-Isolation of a specific type of microorganisms from a complex sample such as feces, saliva, skin, water, and soil
-grow several types of microorganisms
-differences show up as variations in colony size or color, in media color change
-contain substances that absorb oxygen or slow the penetration of oxygen in a medium
-determination of the type of microbe
-specialized tests: biochemical, Immunological, genetic
-indirect staining process
-acidic stains-india ink or nigrosin
-dark background against organism
-doesn't require fixation of smear
-single stain applied to specimen after fixation onto the slide
-most commonly include:methylene blue, crystal violet
-uses more than one stain to differentiate cellular components
-allows differentiation between bacterial species
-most widely used differential stain in microbiology
-most reliable with young bacterial cultures
Acid fast staining
-stained with carbolfuchsin and treated with acid-alcohol
-________ bacteria remain red
-non________ are blue when counterstained with methylene blue
-used for tuberculosis (know this)
-used to demonstrate the presence of capsules or difficult to see structures such as spirals
-What does it look like on the plate?
-color, size, shape, ect
-Appearance or growth on selective and differential media
-used for preliminary identification of bacteria, fungi, parasites
Thayer-Martin agar (TM)
-chocolate agar with antibiotics for isolatin of Neisseria gonorrea and N.meningitides
-determination of the type of microbe
-specialized tests:biochemical, immunological, or genetic
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