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Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?

Water is resistant to changes in temperature.

Which of the following statements is TRUE?

Water freely moves across cell membranes.

After completing a 10K run, Bonita notices that her urine is brown and similar to the color of cola. What does this indicate about Bonita's hydration status?

She is suffering from severe dehydration and needs treatment immediately.

The primary cause of gastroesophageal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is

Relaxation of the smooth muscles.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding phosphorus?

On average, Americans do not consume enough phosphorus in their diets.

The "command center" of fluid intake is located in the ________


Which of these nutrients is destroyed by exposure to light?


Which of the following is a diuretic?


The meat factor is

a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption.

At what point during pregnancy is adequate folate MOST important?

during the first four weeks after conception

On average, which of the following individuals would have the highest percentage of body water?

35-year-old lean man

What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?

Acts as coenzymes

The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of ________ in and out of the muscle cell.


Which of the following is NOT a reason infants are at higher risk of dehydration than adults?

Infants have kidneys that produce highly concentrated urine.

Which of the following is NOT a risk in the offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy?


Which of the following fatty acids is critical to fetal brain and eye development?

docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

A goiter can result from ________

too much or too little iodine in the diet.

Which of the following groups are the MOST vulnerable to dehydration?

Infants and the elderly

To avoid ________ contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12 oz. a week.


In which trimester of pregnancy is the fetus the most vulnerable to teratogens?


All of the following are major functions of sodium EXCEPT

Maintains normal heart rhythm

Which of the following explains why folate is critical to the health of a newly conceived embryo?

Folate is needed for proper cell division

Which of the following is NOT a maternal benefit of breastfeeding?

Shortens the intervals between pregnancies

Good sources of riboflavin include ________

Milk, meats, and green vegetables

Which of the following is NOT a symptom of pellagra?


Which statement is FALSE regarding fat-soluble vitamins?

Fat-soluble vitamins need to be consumed on a daily basis.

Which of the following is NOT a good source of vitamin K?

Exposure to sunlight.

Ian is hospitalized for dehydration after experiencing severe vomiting and diarrhea. Which of the following is NOT associated with Ian's dehydrated condition?

The extracellular electrolyte concentration will be very low.

Which of the following individuals is LEAST likely to suffer dehydration?

Julio who never takes diuretics of laxatives.

The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the ________


Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?

The fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest.

Inadequate intakes of ________ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus.


The most serious type of heat illness is heat ________.


Which of the following is NOT a vitamin?


Which of the following will impair iron absorption?

Low amounts of stomach acid

What is transamination?

a key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids

Guidelines that can prevent heat related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes include all of the following EXCEPT

attendance of a certified athletic trainer at all sporting events.

All of the following are associated with gestational diabetes EXCEPT

delivery of a low-birth-weight infant

A lack of dietary iodine during pregnancy is the primary cause of ________ worldwide.


A deficiency of ________ has been associated with convulsions and dermatitis in infants.

Vitamin B6

A deficiency of ________ is the most common deficiency worldwide.


From the third month of pregnancy until birth the developing human is called a/n ________


Macrocytic anemia results from a deficiency of ________

Vitamin B12

Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of ________ in adulthood.

Metabolic syndrome

Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in ________ adults.


Pellagra was first seen in populations where the dietary staple was ________


Which of the following statements does NOT describe water-soluble vitamins?

Water-soluble vitamins are stored in large amounts in the body.

Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of ________ cells.


The binder found in high fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is ________.

Oxalic acid

All of the following conditions are related to an electrolyte imbalance EXCEPT


Which vitamin can be made from the amino acid tryptophan?


Athletes are more likely to develop a heat illness on hot and humid days. Why?

In hot and humid weather the body cannot dissipate heat via the evaporation of sweat.

Which of the following were once referred to as accessory factors?

vitamins and minerals

Prothrombin and factor VII are ________

proteins that are involved in the coagulation of blood

It is suggested that ________ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid.


Which of the following individuals is at risk for hyperkalemia?

An individual with kidney disease.

The letters used to identify the fat-soluble vitamins indicate ________

The chronological order in which the vitamins were discovered.

What is the primary symptom of niacin toxicity?


Bert goes to the gym and works out strenuously for about 45 minutes. After his exercise bout he weighs himself and notices that he has lost a pound. How much fluid should he drink to rehydrate his body?

2 cups

The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is

infant suckling

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?

Maternal zinc deficiency has no known consequences in adult offspring.

Vitamin K deficiencies are rare because

Intestinal bacteria produce vitamin K

The chronic overconsumption of ________ can result in a biotin deficiency.

Raw egg whites.

Which statement regarding thiamin is FALSE?

It is often toxic when consumed in excess

A low-birth-weight infant is one that weighs less than ________ pounds.


A person suffering from fatigue, muscle wasting, and nerve damage is likely suffering from which of the following deficiency diseases?


The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the ________


Vitamin B12 is essential for the proper functioning of ________ cells.


Which vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity?

Vitamins A and D

Water is known as the universal solvent. This means that ________

most solutes (particles) will dissolve in water.

Which of the following is a trace mineral?


Which of the following is the BEST source of thiamin?

Whole and enriched cereals and grains

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?

The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.

Hyperventilation, core body temperature above 105°F, hot and dry skin, and rapid pulse are all symptoms of what type of heat illness?

Heat stroke

Which of the following hormones is referred to as the "let down" hormone?


Rich dietary sources of DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) include ________

Mackerel and salmon

The average weight and height for a healthy newborn in the United States is ________ pounds and 18-22 inches long.


Which of the following is associated with increased absorption of zinc?


Which is NOT a symptom of low blood pressure?


Why is it strongly recommended that infants NOT consume honey?

Honey contains spores of the bacterium Clostridium botulinum.

Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of ________ in the adult offspring.


A person exhibiting symptoms of impaired work performance, general fatigue, pale skin, depressed immune function, impaired cognitive and nerve function, and impaired memory is likely suffering from ________

iron-deficiency anemia

What is the primary reason we sweat?

to regulate body temperature

A toxicity of folate can disguise a true deficiency of ________, resulting in nerve damage.

Vitamin B12

The only thing that will "cure" eclampsia is ________

delivery of the infant

The agency that sets and monitors standards for city water systems is the ________

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

Most water is lost daily via the ________.


The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and ________.


The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized by the sperm is ________.


Of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?

African American

What is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?

Vitamin B12

During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ________ kilocalories per day.


Which of the following do sodium and potassium NOT have in common?

Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes.

Insufficient intake of iron will FIRST affect the body's ________ levels.


A normal-weight woman should gain approximately 25 to ________ pounds during pregnancy.


Which of the following will likely result if the concentration of electrolytes outside the cell is higher than in the intracellular environment?

The cell will shrink and dry up

Which of the following birth defects has NOT been linked to maternal obesity?


Which of the following is NOT a symptom of preeclampsia?

unexplained and rapid weight loss

Vitamins A, D, E, and K are best absorbed with foods that are rich in ________


Which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates an infant is ready to accept solid foods?

The infant has high stores of iron.

Heat cramps that develop during vigorous physical activity in hot temperatures are due to ________

A fluid and electrolyte imbalance.

Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ________

third trimester

Which is NOT a function of chloride?

used in public water supplies to kill harmful bacteria

Which of the following does NOT describe tissue fluid?

fluid that is found in the blood stream

Iodine is essential for the synthesis of ________ hormones.


Which of the following enhances the absorption of iron?

Vitamin C

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?

The extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding vitamin B12 during pregnancy?

The RDA for vitamin B12 doubles during pregnancy.

During pregnancy excess consumption of ________ is associated with birth defects.

Vitamin A

High concentrations of homocysteine in the blood are associated with the development of ________

heart disease

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is associated with the decreased absorption and utilization of ________


The movement of water through a semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called ________


Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa?

Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in adults.

During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by ________ calories as compared to prepregnancy levels.


Which of the following comprises the vitamin B6 "umbrella" of compounds?

pyridoxal, pyridoxine, and pyridoxamine

What is the function of synovial fluid?

lubricates body joints

Celine visited her doctor to complain about a cut that bled a lot before it clotted. Which of the following deficiencies might cause increased bleeding?

vitamin K

Matt has just been diagnosed with hypertension, and his physician has instructed him to reduce his sodium intake. Which of the following would be good advice for Matt?

Snack on fresh fruits and vegetables instead of salty snacks

Which mineral increases insulin's effectiveness in cells?


A fluid loss of greater than ________ percent of body weight can result in organ failure, coma, and death.


At birth, baby Ramon weighs 8 pounds. If his growth and development are normal, what would you expect Ramon to weigh at his first birthday?

24 pounds

All of the following are common storage sites for iron EXCEPT the


Widely distributed in many foods, phosphorous is especially abundant in foods dense in ________


The human body can synthesize which two fat-soluble vitamins?

Vitamin D and vitamin K

A megadose of a vitamin is defined as consuming ________ times the recommended intake.

≥ 10

The fluid that is found in between cells is called ________ fluid.


Which of the following foods contains the lowest amount of sodium?

1 medium fresh orange

The MAJOR dietary source of iodine in the typical American's diet is

iodized table salt

The fetal adaptation theory indicates that a fetus exposed to starvation or malnutrition goes into a survival mode. Which of the following is NOT a fetal physiological response in this situation?

The size and function of body organs, such as liver or kidneys, does not change.

Phylloquinone and menaquinone are better known as ________

Vitamin K

Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who ________

have a fat malabsorption disorder.

During pregnancy what amount of alcohol consumption is considered safe?


The first B-vitamins discovered was ________


The two electrolytes that enable nerves to respond to stimuli are sodium and ________.


Hyponatremia is associated with ________


Which of the following individuals would be at risk for a vitamin K deficiency?

a 30-year-old with Crohn's disease

The iron-carrying protein that assists in the transport of oxygen into muscle cells is


The water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs is ________ water.


Which of the following conditions would result in a decreased water loss from the body?

high sodium intake

Which of the following is NOT a vitamin?


The primary sources of folate in the American diet are ________

enriched ready-to-eat cereals, bread, and grain products.

The USDA recommends that pregnant women avoid all of the following foods EXCEPT


Which of the following stimulates the thirst mechanism?

decreased concentration of solutes in the blood

Which of following does NOT explain why infants are at a higher risk of dehydration compared to adults?

Infants have a lower total body water percentage.

Which of the following would NOT be good advice to give to a parent regarding the introduction of solids to their six-month-old infant?

Add honey to cereal and fruit to improve infant acceptance of these new foods.

Which component of the blood is essential in transporting oxygen to body cells?


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