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Microbio Chapter 4

Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic Cells
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Prokaryote
comes from greek words for prenucleus
Eukaryote
comes from greek words for true nucleus
Characteristics of Prokaryote
1) one circular chromosome, not in a membrane
2) no histones
3) no organelles
4) peptidoglycan cell walls
5) binary fission
Characteristics of Eukaryote
1) paired chromosomes, in nuclear membrane
2) histones present
3) organelles
4) polysaccharide cell walls
5) mitosis (or miosis)
Rod-shaped
Bacillus
Spherical
Coccus
Spiral - wave
Spirillum
Spiral - Curved Rod
Vibrio
Spiral - corkscrew
Spirochete
Two unusual shapes of bacteria
1) star shaped
2) hyphal (filamentous)
Pairs
diplo-
(diplococci, diplobacilli)
Chains
Strepto-
(streptococci, streptobacilli)
Clusters
Staphylo-
(staphylococci)
Two types of clusters
1) tetrads (4)
2) sarcinae (8)
Monomorphic
only one type of morphology
Pleomorphic
ability to change shapes depending on amount of nutrients
Two types of pleomorphic bacteria
1) Rhizobium
2) Corynebacterium
Typical size of prokaryote
1-2 micrometers
Typical size of eukaryote
10-100 micrometers
Advantage of small size?
Easier to metabolize faster, which leads to great amount of reproduction
Glycocalyx
Outside cell wall
usually sticky
made of polysaccharides, some proteins
Capsule and slime layer
Capsule Glycocalyx function
prevent phagocytosis, tight, good organization
Slime Layer Glycocalyx function
Allows cell to attach, loosely arranged, not as organized
Cell wall
prevents osmotic lysis
rigidity
shape
made of peptidoglycan (PG)
Peptidoglycan
Disaccharide polymer (NAG and NAM)
Tetrapeptide side chains
Peptide cross bridges