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24 terms

Chapter 18- The Later Middle Ages

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excommunicate
cast out from the church
Pope Gregory VII
he disapproved the bishop chosen by the Holy Roman Empire Emperor Henry IV
Emperor Henry IV
went against Pope Gregory VII, begged forgiveness
Crusades
were a long series of wars between Christians an Muslims in Southwest Asia
Holy Land
Europeans called it this because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died
Pope Urban II
called by the Byzantine Empire to help called all Christians to fight in the Crusades
King Richard I
led Christian soldiers in the Third Crusade and earned respect from his enemies and Christians for his bravery
Saladin
Muslim general that led the Muslim army during the Third Crusade
clergy
church officials
religious order
a group people who dedicated their lives to religion and follow common rules
St. Francis of Assisi
encouraged people to be kind to others, started the Franciscan Order
Friars
people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public
Thomas of Aquinas
Dominican philosopher that argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs
natural law
a law that governed how the world operated
Magna Carta
this document listing rights that King John could not ignore, that required him to honor certain rights
Parliament
a lawmaking body that governs England today
Hundred Years' Wars
a long conflict between England and France
Joan of Arc
a French peasant girl, who rallied the French troops together during the Hundred Years' War
Black Death
a deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351
heresy
religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings
Reconquista
efforts to retake Spain from the Moors
King Ferdinand
King of Spain, he and his wife ended the Reconquista. Forced the Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave. Banned Islam
Queen Isabella
Queen of Spain. She ended the Reconquista with her husband. Banned Islam and forced all Jews in Spain to become Christians or leave. Paid for voyage of Christopher Columbus
Spanish Inquisition
an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion