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Exam 3 FSHN 120

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Which of the following is a good food safety practice to employ when cooking or consuming eggs?
Casseroles made with eggs should reach an internal temperature of 160 before being eaten
• Which of the following is most commonly associated with food-borne illnesses?
Answer: foods of animal origin
• Why is rBGH give to many U.S. dairy cows?
Answer: to increase milk production without increasing feed
• A normal-weight woman should gain approximately 25 to ___pounds during pregnancy?
Answer: 35
• Celine visited her doctor to complain about a cut that bled a lot before it clotted. Which of the following deficiencies might cause increased bleeding?
Answer: Vitamin K
• Mycotoxins are most commonly found in
Answer: peanuts and grains
• Fetal demand for iron is highest during the ______
Answer: Third Trimester
• Which of the following hormone is reffered to as the "let down" hormone?
Answer: Oxytocin
• Iodine is essential for the synthesis of _____hormones.
Answer: Thyroid
• Which of the following individuals is most likely to suffer dehydration?
• Answer: Julio who never takes diuretics of laxatives
• Guidelines that can prevent heat related deaths in high school and collegiate athletes include all of the following EXCEPT
Answer: attendance of a certified athletic trainer at all sporting events
• A lack of dietary iodine during pregnancy is the primary cause of _____worldwide.
Answer: Creinism
The proper steps developed for canning foods ensures that all endospores of _____botulinum are eliminated when followed carefully
Answer: Clostridium
Which of the following additives gives ham, hot dogs, and bologna their pink color?
Answer: Nitrate
• Research studies suggest that diets rich in vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of developing ______
Answer: Colon Cancer
• At what point during pregnancy is adequate folate MOST important?
Answer: during the first four weeks after conception
• It is 10 a.m., and Julie is trying to decide what to prepare for tonight's dinner. She selects a frozen turkey breast and must thaw it before she can proceed with her cooking preparations. Which of the following would be an appropriate method of thawing her poultry?
Answer: Julie could use her microwave
• Which of the following is NOT a recommended method for preventing cross-contamination?
• Answer: using a porous wood cutting board
• The iron carrying protein that assists in the transport of oxygen into muscle cells is
Answer: myoglobin
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding vitamin B12 during pregnancy?
Answer: the RDA for vitamin B12 doubles during pregnancy
• Fetal demand for iron is highest during the_____
Answer: third trimester
• Phylloquinone and Menaquinone are better known as______
Answer: vitamin K
• Inadequate intakes of ______during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus
Answer: folate
The majority of our body's phosphorus is stored in the ______
Answer: bones
• What is only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?
Answer: Vitamin B12
• Which of the following is a diuretic?
Answer: alcohol
The meat factor is
Answer: a special quality found in meat, poultry, and fish that enhances iron absorption
• Studies have shown that exposure to the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of _______in adulthood
Answer: Metabolic Syndrome
• Folate deficiency during pregnancy is associated with
Answer: Neural Tube Defects
• Widely distributed in many foods, phosphorus is especially abundant in foods dense in...
Answer: Protein
• Which of the following is major mineral?
Answer: Sodium
• What is not a function of chloride?
Answer: Used in public water supplies to kill harmful bacteria
• Which of the following is true?
Answer: Water freely moves across cell membranes
• Which of the following food preservation methods does NOT limit spoilage by drawing water out of foods, making them inhospitable to bacterial growth?
Answer: cooling
• The letters used to identify the fat-soluble vitamins indicate
Answer: the chronological order in which the vitamins were discovered
• The binder found in high fiber foods that inhibits the absorption of iron and zinc is_____
Answer: oxalic acid
• Which of the following is an antioxidant added to food as a preservative?
Answer: Vitamin C
• The water that comes from lakes, rivers, and reservoirs are_____
Answer: surface
• The main symptom associated with Clostridium botulinum intoxication is
Answer: paralysis
• Which of the following does NOT describe fluid tissue?
Answer: fluid that is found in the blood stream
• The two electrolytes that enable nerves to respond to stimuli are sodium and_____
Answer: Potassium
• Bert goes to the gym and works out strenuously for about 45 minutes. After his exercise bout he weighs himself and notices that he has lost a pound. How much fluid should he drink to rehydrate his body?
Answer: 4 cups
• The ability of a muscle to contract and relax is dependent on the flow of______in and out of the muscle cell
Answer: Calcium
• The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that all breastfed infants be given a ________ supplement to decrease the risk of developing rickets.
Answer: Vitamin D
• From the third month of pregnancy until birth the developing human is called a/n
Answer: fetus
• Which of the following is NOT a vitamin?
Answer: Choline
• What is the primary role of the B-vitamins?
Answer: provide energy
Vitamin K deficiencies are rare because
Answer: intestinal bacteria produce vitamin K
The chronic overconsumption of_____can result in biotin deficiency
Answer: raw egg whites
• The only thing that will "cure" eclampsia is______
Answer: delivery of the infant
• Which of the following is NOT a good explanation of why children are more sensitive to pesticides than adults?
Answer: pesticides increase nutrient absorption
• Consumption of high levels of folate supplements can mask a/n ________ deficiency
Answer: Vitamin B12
• A megadose of a vitamin is defined as consuming _____times the recommended intake
Answer: greater than or equal to 10
• Studies have shown that exposure of the fetus to famine in the first trimester of pregnancy resulted in a high risk of the development of______in adulthood
Answer: metabolic syndrome
• The first B-vitamins discovered was_____
Answer: niacin
• The stimulus that is needed for continued and sustained production of breast milk is
Answer: infant suckling
• The "command center" of fluid intake is located in the_____
Answer: hypothalamus
• It is suggested that ________ percent of neural tube defects could be prevented if all women of childbearing age consumed adequate amounts of folate or folic acid.
Answer: 70
• Inadequate intakes of_____ during pregnancy are associated with neural tube defects in the fetus
Answer: Folate
• Substances that lead to birth defects are called_____
Answer: teratogens
• The original objective in the development of GMO's (genetically modified organisms) was to
Answer: improve crop protection from pesticides and herbicides
• The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the _____
Answer: blastocyst
• Which of the following conditions would result in a decreased water loss from the body?
Answer: high sodium intake
• Which of the following will likely result if the concentration of electrolytes outside of the cell is higher than in the intracellular environment?
Answer: the cell will shrink up and dry up
• Which of the following groups are most vulnerable to dehydration?
Answer: infants and elderly
Which of the following statements is TRUE?
Answer: water freely moves across cell membranes
• The movement of water through semipermeable membrane toward solutes is called
Answer: osmosis
Which of the following stimulates the thirst mechanism?
Answer: dryness of the mouth and throat tissues
• Insensible water loss includes water loss
Answer: through respiration
• Which of the following does NOT describe tissue fluid?
Answer: fluid that is found in the blood stream (plasma)
• Matt has just been diagnosed with hypertension, and his physician has instructed him to reduce his sodium intake. Which of the following would be good advice for Matt?
Answer: snack on fresh fruits and vegetables instead of salty snacks
• Diets rich in ______are associated with maintaining healthy blood pressure levels
Answer: Potassium
• Which of the following does NOT explain why infants are at a high risk of dehydration compared to adults?
Answer: infants have a lower total body water percentage
• Heat cramps that develop during vigorous physical activity in hot temps. Are due to
Answer: a fluid and electrolyte imbalance
• A potentially fatal condition characterized by the failure of the body's heat regulating mechanisms is heat
Answer: stroke
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding phosphorus?
Answer: on average, Americans do not consume enough phosphorus in their diets
• What is NOT a symptom of low blood pressure?
Answer: stroke
• Which of the following is NOT a good source of Vitamin K?
Answer: exposure to sunlight
• Who is responsible for determining the safety and efficacy of any dietary supplement?
Answer: the manufacturer of the supplement
• The first B-vitamins discovered was
Answer: thiamin
• Vitamins A, D, E, and K are best absorbed with foods that are rich in
Answer: fat
• Chromium assists in ______uptake
Answer: glucose
• The primary sources of Folate in the American diet are
Answer: enriched ready-to-eat cereals, bread, and grain products
• Which of the following is a trace mineral?
Answer: iron
• Which component of the blood is essential in transporting oxygen to the cells?
Answer: erythrocytes
• Prothrombin and factor VII are______
Answer: proteins that are involved in the coagulation of blood
Good sources of riboflavin include
Answer: milk, meats, and green vegetables
• The letters used to identify the fat-soluble vitamins indicate
Answer: the chronological order in which the vitamins were discovered
• Which of the following individuals may not benefit from dietary supplementation?
Answer: people who eat a balanced diet
• A toxicity of folate can disguise a true deficiency of_______, resulting in nerve damage
Answer: Vitamin B12
• Pellagra is the deficiency disease associated with
Answer: Niacin
• Pellagra was first seen in populations where the dietary staple was______
Answer: corn
• What is the best source of thiamin?
Answer: whole and enriched cereals and grains
• The MAJOR dietary source of iodine in the typical American's diet is
Answer: iodized table salt
• Bob's physician just diagnosed him with iron-deficiency anemia, All of the following would be advice for Bob to utilize more dietary iron except:
Answer: drinking a class of milk with his iron supplement
• The original objective the development of GMO's was to
Answer: improve crop protection from pesticides and herbicides
• The inner portion of the zygote that implants in the uterine lining is called the _______
Answer: blastocyst
• Water has a high heat capacity. What does this term mean?
Answer: water is resistant to changes in temperature
• What is the only water-soluble vitamin that can be stored in large amounts in the human body?
Answer: vitamin B12
• A person exhibiting symptoms of impaired work performance, general fatigue, pale skin, depressed immune function, impaired cognitive and nerve function, and impaired memory is likely suffering from ________
Answer: iron-deficiency anemia
• The primary cause of gastroesophegeal reflux and constipation during pregnancy is
Answer: relaxation of the smooth muscle
Which of the following is NOT a factor that indicates an infant is ready to accept solid foods?
Answer: the infant has high stores of iron
• A deficiency of_______has been associated with convulsions and dermatitis in infants
Answer: Vitamin B6
• Why are newborns given a single injection of vitamin K?
Answer: the infant's intestinal bacteria are not yet able to synthesize vitamin K
• Which of the following have the LEAST amount of risk of suffering serious consequences from a food borne illness?
Answer: person recovering from surgery
• The two electrolytes that enable nerves to respond to stimuli are sodium and______
Answer: potassium
• Poor maternal intake of calcium increases the risk of _______ in the adult offspring
Answer: hypertension
• Which vitamin can be made from the amino acid tryptophan?
Answer: niacin
• Research studies suggests that diets rich in Vitamin D are associated with a lower risk of developing________
Answer: colon cancer
• Which of the following is NOT a symptom of preeclampsia?
Answer: unexplained and raipid weight loss
• Which of the following BEST describes the Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list?
Answer: catalogue of food additives generally regarded as safe; established in 1958 by the U.S. congress
• The addition of iodine to table salt has decreased the incidence of
Answer: goiter
• During the first six months of lactation, the daily caloric needs of the mother increase by______calories as compared to prepregnancy levels
Answer: 330
• Which vitamin can be made from the amino acid tryptophan?
Answer: niacin
• All of the following are protective responses to encountering food-borne microbes EXCEPT
Answer: decreased metabolic rate
• Which of the following is an example of a neurotoxin?
Answer: clostridium botulinum
• Which of the following is an example of a nerve toxin?
Answer: mercury
Which of the following environmental conditions would NOT affect the survival and reproduction of food microorganisms?
Answer: a low amount of humidity
• Which of the following is NOT a recommending method for preventing cross contamination?
Answer: using a porous wood cutting board
Which of the following is NOT an antioxidant used in the processing of food?
Answer: propionic acid
• Which of the following is most commonly associated with food-borne illnesses?
Answer: foods of animal origin
• In which of the following environments does Clostridium Botulinum flourish?
Answer: alkaline
• To avoid food born illness at your next barbeque, it is good practice to do all of the following EXCEPT
Answer: grill hamburgers to medium rare
Which human organ system is MOST affected by toxic levels or mercury
Answer: nervous
• Hepatitis A is a food-borne virus that can result in______damage
Answer: liver
• It is 10 a.m., and Julie is trying to decide what to prepare for tonight's dinner. She selects a frozen turkey breast and must thaw it before she can proceed with her cooking preparations. Which of the following would be an appropriate method of thawing her poultry?
Answer: Julie could use her microwave
• Which of the following is an example of a parasite?
Answer: protozoa
• Why is rBGH give to many U.S. dairy cows?
Answer: to increase the milk production without increasing feed
• It is estimated that over ______ percent of the U.S. population has symptoms of food-borne illness without knowing or reporting it
Answer: 50
• A deficiency of_______is the most common deficiency worldwide
Answer: iron
• The easiest and most effective way to prevent food-borne illnesses is to
Answer: wash hands before handling
• Roquefort cheese, chocolate, and win are all made using which of the following micoogranisms?
Answer: yeast and fungi
• The fetal adaptation theory indicates that a fetus exposed to starvation or malnutrition goes into a survival mode. Which of the following is NOT a fetal physiological response in this situation?
Answer: the size and function of body organs, such as liver or kidneys, does not change
Wh• ich of the following if a FALSE statement regarding the proper refrigeration and freezing of food
• Answer: thaw frozen meat and poultry on the kitchen counter
• Which of the following is NOT a benefit of breastfeeding for the infant?
Answer: the fat in breast milk is difficult for the infant to digest
• Rich dietarty sources of DHA include...
Answer: mackerel and salmon
• Which of the following is NOT a symptom of preeclampsia?
Answer: unexplained and rapid weight loss
• The hormones that prepare the breasts physically for lactation are estrogen and_____
Answer: progesterone
• Some of the earliest research on the fetal origins theory took place in_____adults
Answer: Dutch
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding the consequences of the following maternal nutrient deficiencies during pregnancy?
Answer: maternal zinc deficiency has no known consquences in adult offspring
• Which of the following is NOT a maternal benefit of breastfeeding?
Answer: shortens the intervals between pregnancies
• During the second and third trimesters, the caloric needs of a pregnant woman increase by 350 to ______kilocalories per day
Answer: 450
The point at which the ovum becomes fertilized b the sperm is_________
Answer: conception
Which of the following do sodium and potassium NOT have in common?
Answer: Rich sources of both include fresh foods, such as bananas, cantaloupe, and potatoes
• With the exception of______, most of a pregnants woman's nutrient needs can be met by consuming a nutrient dense diet
Answer: iron
• Which of the following foods contains the lowest amount of sodium?
Answer: 1 medium fresh orange
• Which mineral's absorption is enhanced greatly by vitamin C?
Answer: iron
• Of the following ethnic groups, which has the highest risk of developing hypertension?
Answer: African American
• Wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is associated with the decreased absorption and utilization of_________
Answer: thiamin
• To avoid______contamination during pregnancy, fish consumption should not exceed 12 oz. a week
Answer: mercury
• The process by which a fetus's metabolism, hormone production, and other physiological processes shift in response to inadequate energy intake during pregnancy is called the ________ theory.
Answer: fetal adaptation
• Which of the following statements does NOT describe water-soluble vitamins?
Answer: water-soluble vitamins are stored in large amounts in the body
• Which vitamins pose the greatest risk of toxicity?
Answer: Vitamins A and D
• Athletes are more likely to develop a heat illness on hot and humid days. Why?
Answer: In hot and humid weather the body cannot dissipate heat via evaporation of sweat
• A process that uses gamma rays to eliminate harmful bacteria in meat and poultry is called______
Answer: irradiation
The human body can synthesize which two fat-soluble vitamins?
Answer: Vitamin D and Vitamin K
• Mary drinks 600 milliliters of water. How many cups is this equivalent to?
Answer: 2 ½
• What is transamination?
Answer: a key process in the creation of nonessential amino acids
• Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins are sometimes seen in people who
Answer: have a fat malabsorption disorder
• During pregnancy excess consumption of______is associated with birth defects
Answer: Vitamin A
• Which of these nutrients is destroyed by exposure to light?
Answer: riboflavin
• Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding calcium needs during pregnancy?
Answer: the extra demand for calcium during pregnancy has been shown to cause bone demineralization and increase the risk of future fractures
• Monosodium glutamate, iodine added to table salt, and calcium added to orange juice are all examples of
Answer: additives
Which of the following is FALSE concerning research conducted on subjects born during weather- and war-related famines in Africa
Answer: Cardiovascular disease is now the second leading cause of death in infants
Hepatitis A is a food-borne virus that can result in______damage
Answer: liver
• All of the following are major functions of sodium EXCEPT
Answer: maintains normal heart rhythm
• Milk that is low in fat and produced first in a nursing session in known as______
Answer: foremilk
• Vitamin b12 is essential for the proper functioning of ________cells
Answer: nerve
• Which of the following is NOT an antioxidant used in the processing of food?
Answer: propionic acid
• Which of the following is NOT a mechanism to maintain the body's internal temperature?
Answer: warmed fluids from the body's surface return to the body's core, thus heating the body
A goiter can result from
Answer: too much or too little iodine in the diet
• Which of the following is associated with increased absorption of zinc?
Answer: Growth