Acts in violation of the criminal law designed to bring financial reward to an offender
offenders who do not define themselves by a criminal role
occasional thieves decision to steal is spontaneous based on this
The professional fence
who earns his or her living solely by buying and reselling stolen stuff
target removing strategies
putting dummy goods out and having real stuff hidden
Target Hardening strategies
locking goods in place or monitoring them
False Pretense or Fraud
Involves misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a victim to willingly give his or her property to the wrongdoer, who then keeps it.
Are run by swindlers who aspire to separate a victim from his or her hard-earned money
a crime that occurs when someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it
Burglary against commercial property and not private homes
Owner of a business burning his or her property down or hiring someone to do it in order to escape financial problems
Created by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige.
Culture of Poverty
In the lower-class and passed on by generation
Social Disorganization Theory
Focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect crime rates. Shaw and Mckay
Holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally
Cultural Deviance Theory
Combines elements of both strain and social disorganization theory. Use of subcultures
Part of Shaw and Mckay
Social Ecology Theory
The conflicts and problems of urban social life and communities, including fear, unemployment, deterioration, and siege mentality, influence crime rates.
Mutual trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children, and the maintenence of public order.
Using sociological lens, structural strain suggests that economic and social sources of strain shape collective human behavior
Using a psychological reference, individual strain theories suggest that individual life experiences cause some people to suffer pain and misery,feelings which are then translated into antisocial behaviors
People who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them seek alternatives, such as crime. Strain Theory
Institutional Anomie Theory
The desire to accumulate wealth and material goods pervade all aspects of American Life. Strain
General Strain Theory
Strain has a variety of sources. Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms.
The rules or laws that a sub-culture may have that are more important than actual laws