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Economic Crime

Acts in violation of the criminal law designed to bring financial reward to an offender

Occasional thieves

offenders who do not define themselves by a criminal role

Situational Inducements

occasional thieves decision to steal is spontaneous based on this

The professional fence

who earns his or her living solely by buying and reselling stolen stuff

target removing strategies

putting dummy goods out and having real stuff hidden

Target Hardening strategies

locking goods in place or monitoring them

False Pretense or Fraud

Involves misrepresenting a fact in a way that causes a victim to willingly give his or her property to the wrongdoer, who then keeps it.

Confidence Games

Are run by swindlers who aspire to separate a victim from his or her hard-earned money


a crime that occurs when someone who is trusted with property fraudulently converts it

Commercial Burglary

Burglary against commercial property and not private homes

Arson Fraud

Owner of a business burning his or her property down or hiring someone to do it in order to escape financial problems

Stratified Society

Created by the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige.

Culture of Poverty

In the lower-class and passed on by generation

Social Disorganization Theory

Focuses on the conditions within the urban environment that affect crime rates. Shaw and Mckay

Strain Theory

Holds that crime is a function of the conflict between the goals people have and the means they can use to obtain them legally

Cultural Deviance Theory

Combines elements of both strain and social disorganization theory. Use of subcultures

Concentric Zones

Part of Shaw and Mckay

Social Ecology Theory

The conflicts and problems of urban social life and communities, including fear, unemployment, deterioration, and siege mentality, influence crime rates.

Collective Efficacy

Mutual trust, a willingness to intervene in the supervision of children, and the maintenence of public order.

Structural Strain

Using sociological lens, structural strain suggests that economic and social sources of strain shape collective human behavior

Individual Strain

Using a psychological reference, individual strain theories suggest that individual life experiences cause some people to suffer pain and misery,feelings which are then translated into antisocial behaviors

Anomie Theory

People who adopt the goals of society but lack the means to attain them seek alternatives, such as crime. Strain Theory

Institutional Anomie Theory

The desire to accumulate wealth and material goods pervade all aspects of American Life. Strain

General Strain Theory

Strain has a variety of sources. Strain causes crime in the absence of adequate coping mechanisms.

Conduct Norms

The rules or laws that a sub-culture may have that are more important than actual laws

Focal Concerns

Trouble, Toughness, Smartness, Excitement, Fate, Autonomy

Miller's Focal Concern Theory

Citezens who obey the street rules of lower-class life find themselves in conflict with the dominant culture.

Cohen's Theory of Deliquent Gang's

Status frustration of lower class boys, created by their failure to achieve middle-class success, causes them to join gangs.

Cloward and Ohlin's Theory of Oppportunity

Blockage of conventional opportunities causes lower-class youths to join criminal, conflict, or retreatist gangs

Differential Association Theory

People learn to commit crime from exposure to antisocial definitions

Differential Reinforcement Theory

Criminal behavior depends on the persons experiences with rewards for conventional behaviors and punishment for devient ones. being rewarded for deviance leads to crime

Neutralization Theory

Youths learn ways of neutralizing moral retraints and periodically drift in and out of criminal behavior patterns

Hirschi's control theory

A persons bond to society prevents him or her from violatingsocial rules. If the bond weakens, the person id free to commit crime.

Labeling Theory

People enter into law-violating careers when they are labeled for their acts and organize their personalities around the labels.

Contextual Discrimination

Judges practices in some jurisdictions of imposing harsher sentences on African American only in some instinces.

Reflected Appraisals

When parents label their kids and create alienation

Life Course Theories

As people go through the life course, social and personal traits undergo change and influence behavior.

Interactional Theory

Criminals go through lifestyle changes during their offending career. Crime influences lifestyle and changing lifestyle influences crime.

General Theory of Crime and Deliquency

Five critical life domains shape criminal behavior and are shaped by criminal behavior.

Age-Graded Theory

As people mature, the factors that influence their propensity to commit crime change. In childhood, family factors are criticle; in adulthood, marital and job factors are key.

Latent Trait Theories

A master trait controls human developement.

Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential (ICAP) Theory

People with antisocial potential are at risk to commit antisocial acts. AP can be viewed as both a long and short-term phenomenon.

General Theoryof Crime

Crime and criminality are seperate concepts. People choose to commit crime when they lack self-control. People lacking self-control will sieze criminal opportunities.

Differential Coercion

Individuals exposed to coercive environments develop socia-psychological deficts that enhance their probability of engaging in criminal behavior.

Control Balance Theory

A person's "control ratio" influences his or her behavior.

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