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Terms in this set (18)
defects that weaken arguements
Making assumptions about a whole group or range of cases based on a sample that is inadequate
Missing the Point
The premises of an argument support a particular conclusion--but not the conclusion that the arguer actually draws.
Post hoc (false cause)
Assuming that because B comes after A, A caused B.
The arguer claims that a sort of chain reaction, usually ending in some dire consequence, will take place, but there's really not enough evidence for that assumption.
Many arguments rely on an analogy between two or more objects, ideas, or situations. If the two things that are being compared aren't really alike in the relevant respects, the analogy is a weak one, and the argument that relies on it commits the fallacy of weak analogy.
Appeal to Authority
adding strength to an argument by referring to respected sources or authorities and explaining their positions on the issues we're discussing.
Appeal to Pity
The appeal to pity takes place when an arguer tries to get people to accept a conclusion by making them feel sorry for someone.
Appeal to Ignorance
Assuming the opponent has no conclusive evidence on the issue at hand.
anticipating and responding in advance to the arguments that an opponent might make. The arguer sets up a wimpy version of the opponent's position and tries to score point by knocking it down.
Partway through an argument, the arguer goes off on a tangent, raising a side issue that distracts the audience from what's really at stake. Often, the arguer never returns to the original issue.
the arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices.
Begging the Question
an argument that asks the reader (begs the question) to simply accept the conclusion without providing real evidence
sliding between two or more different meanings of a single word or phrase that is important to the argument.
"Look, you are going to have to make up your mind. Either you decide that you can afford this car stereo, or you decide you are going to do without music for a while."
"It is ridiculous to have spent thousands of dollars to rescue those two whales trapped in the Arctic ice. Why, look at all the people trapped in jobs they don't like."
"Water fluoridation affects the brain. Citywide, student's test scores began to drop five months after fluoridation began."
"The meteorologist predicted the wrong amount of rain for May. Obviously the meteorologist is unreliable."
Sets with similar terms
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