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Ch 14 The Ocean Floor
the branch of science dealing with physical and biological aspects of the oceans
measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape or topography of the ocean floor
sound navigation and ranging; electronic depth-sounding equipment
a small underwater craft used for deep-sea research
zones between the coasts and the ocean floor basins; includes continental shelves, slopes and rises, as well as, submarine canyons
thick layers of undisturbed sediment near the coasts; wider in the Atlantic Ocean; more narrow in the Pacific Ocean due to volcanic activity
the steep grade that leads to the deep-ocean floor; marks the end of the seaward edge of the continental shelf
a valley in the continental shelf cut during lower sea level, or cut by turbidity currents
water full of sediment created when sand and mud slide off the continental shelf
the gently sloping surface at the base of the continental shelf
ocean basin floor
area of deep-ocean floor between the continental margin and the oceanic ridge; includes abyssal plains and volcanic peaks
very level area of the deep-ocean floor, usually lying near the foot of the continental rise
isolated volcanic peaks that rise at least 1000 meters above the deep ocean
a continuous elevated zone on the ocean floor, along divergent plains where plates are pulling apart
the action of plate tectonics producing new oceanic floor at ocean ridges
Where are continental margins widest? Why?
Atlantic Ocean; less earthquake or volcanic activity
sediment made of mineral grains eroded from land
sediment made of shells and skeletons of marine life, including algae (calcareous ooze is a type of biogenous ooze)
thick sediment caused by dissolving calcium carbonate shells; not found in the deeper ocean because shells dissolve at 4500 meters
a type of biogenous sediment; made of shells of diatoms (algae) and radiolarians (single-celled animals)
minerals that crystallize from ocean water (a small portion of overall ocean sediment)
made of water and natural gas; found in permafrost and under the deep ocean floor
hard lumps of manganese (and some other chemicals) found on the ocean floor
How much of the Earth is covered by global oceans?
Name the four main ocean basins.
Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic oceans
How are sediments deposited on abyssal plains?
turbidity currents carry sediments on the ocean floor
Which ocean has the greatest average depth?
submersible used for deep-ocean research
used to measure differences in ocean-surface heights