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What percentage of the glomeruli in both kidneys must be nonfunctional before serum chemistry changes indicate renal disease?


What laboratory test evaluates kidney function and is a breakdown product of protein?


Creatinine concentrations in serum are influenced by

hydration levels

Nonrenal causes of increased levels of urea might include

the amount of protein ingested

Decrease in albumin may occur in

chronic liver disease

Fibrinogen is considered a part of

total plasma protein

When evaluating the liver of dogs and cats, AST should be evaluated in conjunction with


Which of the following substances is a by-product of muscle metabolism, produced at a consistant rate, adn filtered out by the renal glomeruli?


Which of the following substances used to evaluate kidney filtration and function is excreted by the kidneys and up to 40% reabsorbed by the tubules?


Glycosuria exists

when blood glucose levels exceed the renal threshold for absorption of glucose

A false positive urine glucose reading may result from administration of


An increase in unconjugated bilirubin may be the result of

either hepatic or prehepatic failure

ALT is also known as


Horses typically have higher _____ values than other species?


What blood chenistry test is not a test for liver damage?


When referring to the alteration of bilirubin in the liver, the verb conjugated means

to join together

A test done to help diagnose hyperthyroidism is


When performing urinalysis testing, the sample should be analyzed within _____ minutes or refrigeration is required.


For cytologic evaluation of urine, which of the following conditions should be observed?

the specimen should be centerfuged as soon as possible

Brown urine most likely contains


Normal voided urine is clear, except in which of the following species?


The average urine specific gravity for a healthy adult dog is


The average urine specific gravity for a healthy adult cat is


In a healthy animal, deminished water intake or loss of water would result in ____ urine specific gravity.


The presence of protein in the urine may indicate

kidney disease

Which of these would not be associated with ketones in the urine?


Mucus is normally often seen in _____ urine.


Stress and epinephrine releaes in cats may cause an increase in


A kidney function test that is useful in birds and dalmations is

uric acid

What serum component can be used as a screening test for hypothyroidism?


Total protein levels are ____ in a dehydrated animal.


Bile acids aid in the digestion of


Fibrinogen is produced in the


Gamma globulins can be estimated by subtracting

albumin from serum total protein

EDTA plasma cannot be used for tesing ____ plasma levels because EDTA forms a complex with it.


The ability of hte renal tubules to concentrate or dilute a urine sample is assessed by what component of the urinalysis?

specific gravity

Bilirubinuria is considered a normal finding in what species?


A normal adult horse would most likely have a urinary pH of


Leukocytes in the urine sediment and a positive nitrite reaction on the urinary colormetric strip give presumptive evidence that the patient may have a

bacterial infection

Aged urine samples left at room temperature and exposed to UV light may cause a false negative result in which of the following biochemical tests?


Urinary pH is not affected by the

presence of crystals in the urine

Uric acid is the major nitrogenous waste in


Which of the following statements regarding creatinine is false?

it is a less reliable indicator of renal function than BUN

What biochemical tests are not considered part of a primary hepatic profile?

BUN and creatinine

The current test of choice for evaluating liver function is

bile acids

The main function of bicarbonate is to

maintain balanced body pH levels

Kidney disease results in accumulation of metabolic waste in the blood, a condition known as


The normal pH of an omnivore is generally


Which of the following is a typical specific gravity for dilute porcine urine?


In what species is ketonuria most commonly found?


In order for glycosuria to occur, which of the following must also be present?


Urine specific gravity is actually a measure of which of the following?

renal tubular function

What substance increases in the urine in glomerular disease?


Urine often has a sweet odor if which of the following in present?


What urinalysis finding is consistent with bacterial cystitis in the dog and cat?

alkaline pH

Decreased total proein can suggest all of the following except


Isosthenuric urine would read _____ on a refractometer.


Urine specific gravity readings indicate

dissolved solids

Blood levels of total bilirubin are used primarily to evaluate function of the


Serum chemistry tests for acute pancreatitis include

amylase and lipase

Serum electrolyte levels should be determined when evaluating function of the


Kidney disease leads to accumulation of metabolic waste in the blood, a condition known as


The gland that iss elevated by measurement of blood levels of T3 and T4 is the

thyroid gland

Ammonia is metabolized by the liver and eliminated by the kidneys. Levels of which metabolic by-product of ammonia are measured to assess kidney function?

urea nitrogen

What is the underlying cause of icterus?


The urine of an animal with hematuria is most likely to be

cloudy and red

The specific gravity of urine is a measure of

the weight of urine compared with the weight of water

Isosthenuria is urine that would most likely have a specific gravity

of 1.010

How would you expect the specific gravity of dilute, colorless urine to compare with that of dark yellow urine?


An alkaline urine pH can be the result of

urinary tract obstruction

Blood in the urine is reported as


Dark yellow, cloudy urine generally would be expected to have a

high specific gravity

Carnivores generally have

acidic urine

Vegetable diets generally yield

alkaline urine

What three species is ALT liver specific

Cats, Primates, Dogs

BUN helps to aseiss function in which organ


Determination of fibrinogen is useful in the detection of the inflammatory process? TRUE or FALSE


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