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58 terms

N. American mammals

north american species
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(subfamily), species, common name
all in lower case
didelphidae, didelphis virginiana, virginia opposum
5 upper incisors and 4 lower incisors, feigns death
talpidae, neurotrichus gibbsii, shrew mode
skull < 3cm, 8 or 9 teeth per side in lower jaw
uses tail in locomotion, humid forests of the Northwest
talpidae, scapanus sp, pacific mole
skull > 3cm, 11 teeth per side in lower jaw
fossorial, two-way fur
soricidae, sorex sp, shrew
no zygomatic arch, no auditory bulla, very high motabolism
molossidae, tadarida brasiliensis, brazilian free-tailed bat
palate extending at level of molars, free tail
colonial roster, high wing ratio
vespertilionidae, lasiurus sp, hoary/red bat
palate beyond molars, 1 upper incisor, 5 upper cheekteeth, solitary, conifer roster, migratory
vespertilionidae, eptesicus fuscus, big brown bat
palate beyond molars, 2 upper incisors, 4 upper cheekteeth, high cold tolerant
vespertilionidae, lasionycteris noctivagans, silver-haired bat
palate beyond molars, 2 upper incisors, 5 upper cheekteeth
solitary, low wing ratio
vespertilionidae, myotis sp, little brown bat
palate beyond molars, 2 upper incisors, 6 upper cheekteeth, throughout North America
marmota flaviventris, yellow-bellied marmot
sciuridae, skull > 7.5cm with depression, prominent temporal ridges, prefers moist soils and restricted to northwest coast
glaucomys sabrinus, northern flying squirrel
sciuridae, small, infraorbital V-shaped at ventral view, pterygoids touch bulla, likes fungi, mature confers and nocturnal glider
tamiasciurus douglasii, douglas squirrel
sciuridae, skull inflated, 4 upper cheekteeth, 3 visible septa, conifer woodland, wide color variation
sciurus griseus, western gray squirrel
sciuridae, skull inflated > 6.3cm, 5 upper cheekteeth, 2 visible septa, prefers conifers and mixed woodlands
tamias sp, chipmunk
sciuridae, infraorbital canal oval/rounded in wide/twisted zygomatic arch, terrestrial/semiarboreal
spermophilus beecheyi, beechey ground squirrel
sciuridae, upper, temporal ridges forming V, herbivore, fungi, birds & insects. wide range habitat
spermophilus lateralis, golden-mantled ground squirrel
sciuridae, temporal ridges faint/prominent forming a U, common in campground and hard to keep out of traps
geomyidae, thomomys bottae, bottas pocket gopher
infraorbital against rostrum, ring-shaped molars, prefer friable soil, herbivore, pack food in pouched
heteromyidae, perognathus sp, pocket mice
infraorbital against sides and perforating rostrum, inflated bulla
herbi/granivore, moist&dry habitat, prefer sandy rocky soils, nocturnal
heteromyidae, dipomys sp, kangaroo rat
infraorbital against sides and perforating rostrum, inflated bulla
herbi/granivore, moist&dry habitat, prefer sandy rocky soils, nocturnal
dipodidae, zapus trinotatus, jumping mouse
only small skull with very large infraorbital canal
herbivore, prefer wet meadows, hibernates
murinae, rattus rattus, black rat
muridae, skull > 2.5cm, three rows of cusps, temporal ridges around rounded skull, commensal with man
murinae, ratus norvegicus, norway rat
muridae, skull > 4cm, three rows of cusps, temporal ridges prominent somewhat parallel each other, commensal with man
murinae, mus musculus, house mouse
muridae, skull< 2.5cm, three rows of cusps, first upper molar equal/longer than second and third premolar combined, commensal with man
sigmodontinae, neotoma fuscipes, dusky-footed woodrat
muridae, skull> 4.5cm, prismatic teeth, zygo. notch, incisive foramina slightly longer than length of palate, build huge nests of sticks and pass them to future generations
sigmodontinae, reithrodontomy megalotis, western harvest mouse
muridae, skull< 2.5cm, two rows of cusps, upper incisors grooved in surface, all CA habitats, good climbers, herbivores
sigmodontinae, peromyscus maniculatus, american deer mouse
muridae, skull< 2.7cm, two rows of cusps, cheekteeth terminal well-anterior to mandibular fossa, herbivore, very wide range
sigmodontinae, peromyscus californicus, california mouse
muridae, skull< 3cm, two rows of cusps, premaxillae beyond nasals, herbivore, prefers brushy mixed woodlands
arvicolinae, ondatra zibethicus, muskrat
muridae, skull > 5cm, prismatic teeth, herbivore, aquatic, builds large nests in water
arvicolinae, arborimus pomo, sonoma tree vole
muridae, skull < 3cm, prismatic teeth, last upper tooth w/ 3 inner projections, eats douglas fir needles, lives in trees
arvicolinae, cleithrionomys californicus, western red-backed vole
muridae, skull < 3cm, prismatic teeth, last upper tooth w/ 4 inner projections, herbivore of coniferous forest floor
arvicolinae, microtus sp, meadow vole
muridae, skull < 3cm, prismatic teeth, nasal not extending beyond incisors
erethizontidae, erethizon dorsatum,
skull > 7cm, very large infraorbital, jugal do not touch lacrimal
canidae, canis latrans, coyote
skull > 16cm, alisphenoid present, 7 lower cheekteeth, without distinct forehead, amazingly adaptable
canidae, canis familiaris, domestic dog
skull > 16cm, alisphenoid present, 7 lower cheekteeth, distinct forehead, amazingly adaptable, commensal with man
canidae, vulpes vulpes, red fox
skull < 16cm, alisphenoid present, 7 lower cheeckteeth, V-shaped temp. ridges, common in agricultural areas
canidae, urocyon cinereoargenteus, gray fox
skull < 16cm, alisphenoid present, U-shaped temp. ridges w/ depression in postorbitals, mandible has extra ang. process-like, wide range&diet, good climber
ursidae, ursus americanus, black bear
alisphenoid present, last upper molar large, bunodont cheekteeth, omnivore, aide range habitat, good climber
procyon lotor, northern raccoon
procyonidae, 6 upper cheekteeth, palate extending well-beyond last molars, prefers woodlands, washes food, sensitive hands, smart, good climber
bassariscus astutus, ringtail
procyonidae, 6 upper cheekteeth, palate at same level of last molars, carnivore, slightly omnivore, agil, nocturnal, shy
lontra canadensis, river otter
mustelidae, 9 total teeth, big infraorbital, squarish last upper molar, piscivore, carnivore
gulo gulo, wolverine
mustelidae, skull>13cm, 9 total teeth, dumbbell last upper molar, small infraorbital, coniferous woodlands, huge territories
martes pennanti, fisher
mustelidae, 9 total teeth, dumbbell last upper molar, carnassial >1cm, climber, coniferous woodlands, eats porcupines
martes americana, marten
mustelidae, 9 total teeth, dumbbell last upper molar, carnassial <1cm, climber, confiferous woodlands, eats squirrels
enhydra lutris, sea otter
mustelidae, big skull, 8 total teeth, oval last upper molar, lives in small groups, swims on its back
taxidea taxus, badger
mustelidae, 8 total teeth, triangular last upper molar, wide habitat, great digger, hunts in holes
mephitis mephitis, striped skunk
mustelidae, skull>6.5cm, 8 total teeth, squarish last upper molar, carnivore/omnivore, ambulatory
spilogale gracilis, spotted skunk
mustelidae, skull<6.5cm, 8 total teeth, squarish last upper molar, small postorbital, carnivore/omnivore
mustela vison, mink
mustelidae, skull<10cm, 8 total teeth, auditory bulla converging anteriorly
mustela erminea, ermine
mustelidae, skull<10cm, 8 total teeth in upper jaw, from mandibular fossa: more braincase
mustela frenata, long-tailed weasel
mustelidae, skull<10cm, 8 total teeth in upper jaw, from mandibular fossa: more face
felidae, lynx rufus, bobcat
short rostrum, no alisphenoid, carnassials, 3 upper cheekteeth, small first upper molar, carnivore, sub-boreal habitat
felidae, felis concolor, mountain lion
skull >15cm, short rostrum, no alisphenoid, carnassials, 4 upper cheekteeth, small first upper molar, widest ranging carnivore in the Americas
felidae, felis catus, house cat
small skull, short rostrum, no alisphenoid, carnassials, 4 upper cheekteeth, small first upper molar, carnivore, eats birds and small mammals
otariidae, eumetopias jubatus, stellar's sea lion
postorbital distinct, alisphenoid present, conical cheekteeth, gap between last two upper molars, big sagital crest, largest otariid, eats squid, fish and octopus
otariidae, zalophus californianus, california sea lion
postorbital distinct, alisphenoid present, conical cheekteeth, big sagital crest, condyles back of skull, eats squid&fish
phocidae, mirounga angustirostris, elephant seal
no alisphenoid, cheekteeth without distinct cusps, fat canines, premaxilla dont touch nasals, 1 lower incisor, eats squid & fish, deep diver
phocidae, phoca vitulina, harbor seal
no alisphenoid, tricuspid cheekteeth, eats squid, octopus & fish, widest ranging phocid