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84 terms

Criminology Exam #3

crime in terms of costs and benefits
crime in terms of the sense people have of things
individuals assess costs and benefits and choose the situation that is more beneficial
narrow model of rational choice
expected utility
narrow model - RTC --> considers probability of future outcomes
the actor never has complete knowledge for decision making
the human brain is a limited info processor
availablity heuristic
RTC - human brain as limited info processor
compensatory strategy
RTC - human brain as limited info processor
noncompensatory strategy
RTC - human brain as limited info processor
actors do not always maximize
RTC - actors do not always maximize
losses are weighted more than gains
Whether something is a loss or a gain depends on the actor's perspective
wide model of rational choice
tangilble and intangible aspects of situations considered
actual utility
based on past experiences - wide model of RTC
looks at present experience: juvenile delinquency has actual utility b/c relieves negative emotions and gives self-esteem
wide model of RTC
bounded rationality
influences limit what an individual will consider doing in a particular situation - wide model of RTC
triggering effect, instrumentality effect, intent effect
show bounded rationality; wide model of RTC
Swiss guns and Aborigine guns show
bounded rationality - civic service and hunting --> wide model of RTC
look into person and understand what they are feeling; how crime carries person away; criminal seduces himself into criminal activity
Phenomenology - Katz
Righteous Slaughter
Phenomenology - Katz
3 emotions associated with murder:
humiliation, righteousness, rage; Phenomenology - Katz
Phenomenology - Katz
a person evokes emotions within himself and experience carries the person away
Phenomenology - Katz
shoplifting = person experiences deviant impulses; intensified self-consciousness; and extreme self-control
Phenomenology - Katz
burglary is about violating one's personal space (not instrumental)
Phenomenology - Katz
Colloquially, the thief and the vandal screw their victims
Phenomenology - Katz
gets away from causalities--> it's about what is going on in person's entire being (not just head) --> carries person away to commit crime
Phenomenology - Katz
differential association theory: learning theory
mechanistic/situational theory; historical/genetic theory
traces criminal behavior back to its source
historical/genetic theories Sutherland
Deductive theory/propositional theory
Criminal behavior is learned
criminal behavior is learned through interaction with other persons in process of communication
Sutherland; communication of gestures
communication of gestures
the principle part of the learning of criminal behavior occurs within intimate personal groups
Sutherland - copresence
when criminal behavior is learned, the learning includes: 1. techniques of committing the crime that can be complicated or simple 2. the specific direction of motives, drives, rationalizations, and attitudes
Sutherland - linguistic constructs; rationalization (Cressey)
linguistic constructs; rationalization
the specific direction of motives and drives is learned from definitions of the legal codes as favorable or unfav
Sutherland - definitions learned from differential social organization, competition/individualism, horizontal mobility
differential social organization, competition/individualism, horizontal mobility
a person becomes delinquent when favorable definitions to violation of law > unfavorable definitions to violation of law
differnetial associations may vary in frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
the process of learning criminal behavior by association with criminal and anti-criminal patterns involves all the mechanisms that are involved in any other learning
while criminal behavior is an expression of needs and values, it is not explained by those needs and values since non-criminal behavior is an expression of those same needs and values
neutralization of guilt
Sykes and Matza
gave concrete examples of definitions unfavorable to the law
Sykes and Matza
criminal must deal with guilt ahead of time
Sykes and Matza
sources of techniques of neutralization
middle class values; Sykes and Matza
delinquent/subterranean values
excitement, thrills, kicks, drifting and grandiose dreams, conspicuous consumption, aggressiveness, violence Sykes and Matza
middle class values
discipline, routine, standardization, protestant ethic, professionalism, softness, peace Sykes and Matza
middle class wanted excitement thrills and kicks
Sykes and Matza
delinquents are just tapping into mainstream values
Sykes and Matza
delinquents are not a subculture of their own and are not oppositional
Sykes and Matza
the reason why values displayed by delinquents gets so much attention: indulging in mainstream values
Sykes and Matza
"values...which are in conflict or in competitions with other deeply held values but are still recognized and accepted by many"
Sykes and Matza
denial of responsibility
Sykes and Matza
denial of injury
Sykes and Matza
denial of victim
Sykes and Matza
define yourself as true victim
Sykes and Matza
condemn the condemner
Sykes and Matza
appeal to higher authority
Sykes and Matza
black boxes
Akers - learning theory
explains why person acquires definitions
Akers - learning theory
explains why some individuals association more with criminals than conformists
Akers - learning theory
explains why some definitions lead to criminal action while others don't
Akers - learning theory
focuses on criminal action, not definitions --> personal and social dynamics of criminal action to explain crime
Akers - learning theory
reinforcement and punishment
Akers - learning theory
steal something, get high fives
PR - Akers - learning theory
kid annoy, mom gives ice cream
PR - Akers - learning theory
negative reinforcement
some bad circumstance alleviated by committing crime Akers - learning theory
inept parenting
NR Akers - learning theory
techniques of neutralization
NR - Akers - learning theory
being smacked; jail time
PP - Akers - learning theory
paying fine, losing friends for committing crime
NP - Akers - learning theory
differential reinforcement
the balance of anticipated or actual rewards and punishments that follow or are consequences of behavior - Akers - learning theory
why do people associate with criminal groups more than conforming groups?
Akers - learning theory; peer influence --> he chooses who will influence his behavior
Coercion Model - kid learns coercive bheavior from parents ineptitude
Akers - learning theory; Gerald Patterson
selection effects
Akers - learning theory; coercion model --> only group left
amplification effects
Akers - learning theory; bad crowd causes kid to become more delinquent
thought you could learn criminal behavior through imitation (watching TV)
Akers - learning theory
believes definitions unfavorable to law are not necessary for crime to occur
Akers - learning theory
replaces definitions with differential reinforcement
Akers - learning theory
definition referred to discriminative stimuli
a person looks at some situation and sees characteristics of that setting which triggers expectations in his RATIONAL mind that crime will be rewarding (open window) Akers - learning theory