Elementary Education Praxis 5004
Terms in this set (64)
New England Colonies
were Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, and New Hampshire. Life was centered around towns, but economics were also focused on manufacturing, fishing, shipbuilding, and trade. Most settlers arrived from England and Scotland. Adult males met to make laws.
Middle Atlantic Colonies
were New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. At one time, New York and New Jersey were the Dutch colony of New Netherland, and Delaware was once New Sweden. These colonies were the melting pot with settlers from all over. Main economic was based on farming. The native Americans were not as much of a threat. This region was known as the "breadbasket" of the new world, since their seaports were constantly full of meat and flour. There was also ship building, iron mining, and production of paper, glass, and textiles in factories.
were Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. Virginia was the first successful English colony and Georgia was the last. The year 1619 was important for Virginia and the US- 60 women were sent to Virginia to marry and establish families, 20 Africans arrived, and Virginia colonists were granted the right to self-government. They immediately elected their own representatives to the House of Burgesses. Major economics was farming.
Acts that caused the war of independence
prohibited English settlement beyond the Appalachian Mountains to appease the Native Americans.
imposed a tax on foreign sugars imported into the colony.
prohibited colonial government from issuing paper money. Opposition began in Massachusetts based on "taxation without representation".
put tax on newspapers, legal documents, licenses, almanacs, and playing cards. In response, the colonies formed the Sons of Liberty and staged riots against tax collectors. It was repealed within in 3 months.
put taxes on lead, glass, paint, paper, and tea in order to generate revenue and regain control of the colonists.
Boston Tea Party
Tea Act of 1773 gave the British East India Company a monopoly on the sales of tea, the colonies responded with this. England responded with the Coercive Acts (the Intolerable Acts).
-The First Continental Congress in 1774 issued the Declaration of Rights and Grievances- vowed allegiance to the king but protested the right of Parliament to tax the colonies.
Formation of the two-party system
-George Washington warned against the creation of "factions" in American politics. Thomas Jefferson echoed this, but he headed the start of a political party.
-In 1790, Jefferson (secretary of state) and Hamilton (secretary of treasury) developed the two party system.
wanted the federal government to be stronger than the state governments. He supported the creation of the first bank of the US.
believed that state governments should be stronger. He opposed the creation of the first bank of the US because he said it would give too much power to wealthy investors. Jefferson's supporters called themselves Democratic-Republicans, Hamilton's Federalists (because they favored a strong central government)
Growth of political parties (1820)
-Democratic-Republican Party became the Republican Party and was the major party for years.
-By 1824, it split and a new party the
formed in favor of strong national growth. Those who favored slow growth were worker, small farmer-oriented and formed the new
with Andrew Jackson as its first leader
Lewis and Clark
Explored the newly bought Louisiana Territory under Jefferson's orders. The expedition was called the Corps of Discovery. They went to the Pacific Ocean and discovered more about the territory, also increasing the want for Westward Expansion which lead to the belief in the doctrine of Manifest Destiny
Those opposed to slavery used this to prove their point showing that the land being considered for territories was part of the area the Compromise had designated as banned for slavery
Passed on May 25, 1854. This nullified the provision creating the territories of Kansas and Nebraska. This allowed people of the two territories to decide for themselves whether or not to permit slavery there. Kansas was given the nickname "Bloody Kansas" because there were two strong groups that opposed each other about slavery.
Dred Scott decision
1857- Dred Scott was a slave whose owner took him from the slave state of Missouri, to the free state Illinois, into Minnesota Territory (which was free). It was decided that Scott being in a free territory did not make him free, because he was not a US citizen or a state citizen of Missouri.
1858- Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas were running for the office of US Senator from Illinois and both were a part of debates that directly affected the outcome of the 1860 presidential election. Lincoln was not an abolitionist, but was morally against slavery. He received a minority of the popular votes, but a majority of the electoral votes. The southern states seceded as they said they would if Lincoln and the Republican party were victorious.
The conclusion of the Civil War opened the floodgates for...
Westward migration and the settlement of new land
People during the Great Depression created makeshift domiciles out of cardboard, scraps of wood, and tents. A reference to President Hoover who was overwhelmed by the situation and incapable of dealing with it.
The New Deal
President Franklin D. Roosevelt's answer to the problems during the Great Depression. He first relieved suffering by creating number of job-creation projects. The second step was to stimulate the economy. And the third was to create social and economic change through innovative legislature.
Aimed at preventing the spread of communism, involved the economic aid that was sent to Europe in the aftermath of the Second World War.
Offered military aid to countries in danger of communist upheaval.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
Formed in 1949 for the purposes of opposing communist aggression
Philosophy concerned with the common-sense needs of average people. Usually happens after the average people feel oppressed by the wealthy. Flourished in late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the US.
World War I
The US was reluctant to enter the war (1917), but played a decisive role in ending the war and creating the League of Nations and establishing its central position in international relations.
After the war, the US remained prosperous in industrial growth and stock markets, but farm prices and wages fell- which created the unbalanced situation that led to the economic collapse of 1929.
World War II
US entered in 1941, fighting against Japan and Germany and their allied Axis powers. The war ended September 2, 1945. The end of the war brought renewed power struggles, especially in Europe and China, as they came under the control of the communists.
What is the function of government?
To secure the common welfare of the members of the given society over which it exercises control
Political movement for the elimination of all governments replaced by a cooperative community of individuals.
Political system characterized by a classless, stateless social organization. Common ownership of national goods. Ideology is the same as Marxism.
Also called an oligarchy. Rule by an individual or small group, centralizes all political control in itself and enforces its will with a strong police force.
A belief and political system opposed ideologically to Communism, though similar in structure with one party state and centralized political control. Unlike communism, it tolerates private ownership of the means of production, although it maintains tight overall control. Central to its belief is idolization of the leader.
The rule of a nation by a monarch, most often a king or queen. May or may not have a democratically open institutions and elections at various levels. Ex. Great Britain which is a constitutional monarchy
System of government with a legislature, usually involving a multiplicity of political parties. Division between head of state and head of government (usually known as the prime minister). Head of state is most often an elected president.
A system of government with a legislature, involving a few or many political parties, with no division between head of state and head of government. President is elected by direct or indirect election. President may rule without a majority in the legislature. Can only be removed from office for major infractions of the law.
A political belief and system in which the state takes a guiding role in the national economy and provides extensive social services to its population. A variant of Marxism, in the extreme it can become communism.
US Government system
consists primarily of the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House has about 435 members according to the national population trend- they serve two-year terms, senators serve six-year terms. Each house can initiate a bill but the bill must be passed by a majority of both houses in order to become a law.
has the president and vice president. The president is the commander in chief of the armed forces and the person who can approve or veto bills from Congress. Elected to four-year term by the electoral college, who mirror the will of the people.
consists of courts and related entities, the top being the Supreme Court
Debates of the Congress and the concerns of the founding fathers were made available to the people of the nation in order to win popular support for the new proposed constitution
A change or addition to the US constitution. Only 27 amendments have been made to the Constitution. An amendment must start in Congress and 2/3 of each house separately must approve it in order for it to progress on the path towards being a law. An amendment must be approved by 3/4ths of the state legislatures, which is 38 states.
A description of how things are grouped in a given space. In geographical terms, this can describe people, places, environments, anywhere and everywhere on Earth.
Refers to the surrounding geography (eg on the banks of the Mississippi River)
Refers to a specific point such as latitude 41 degrees north, longitude 90 degrees west or 123 Main Street
Five Themes of Geography
1) Location- relative and absolute location
2) Place- has human (created by humans such as canals and roads) and physical characteristics (mountains, rivers, deserts)
3) Human-environmental interaction- humans adapt to the environment (wearing warm clothes when it is cold), humans modify the environment (planting trees to block a prevailing wind), and humans depend on the environment (for food, water, raw materials)
4) Movement- how humans interact with one another through trade, communications, emigration and other forms of contact
5) Regions- an area that has some kind of unifying characteristic, such as common language or a common government. There are 3 main types of regions: formal regions, functional regions, and vernacular regions
Areas defined by actual political boundaries, such as a city, county, or state
Defined by a common function, such as the area covered by a telephone service
Are less formally defined areas that are formed by people's perceptions (ex. the South)
Compromises a geomorphical unit, categorized by characteristics such as elevation, slope, orientation, stratification, rock exposure, and soil type
The condition of the air that affects the day-to-day atmospheric conditions. It includes factors such as temperature, air pressure, wind, and moisture or precipitation
The term used to describe the average weather or daily weather conditions for a specific region over a long period of time
Humid continental climate
Northern and central US, northern China, south central and south eastern Canada, and western and southeastern parts of the former Soviet Union. A climate of four seasons- spring, summer, fall, and winter.
Steppe or prairie climate
Located in the interiors of the large continents like Asia and North America. Dry flatlands far from the ocean breezes and are called prairies.
Tundra and taiga
Two major climates found in the high latitudes are tundra and taiga. Tundra means marshy plain- Russia, Europe and Canada. Winters are cold and long, the ground is mushy in the summer months. Taiga is the northern forest region south of the tundra. World's largest forestlands are here. Extreme climates- northern Russia, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Canada, and Alaska.
The humid subtropical climate is found north and south of the tropics. It is characterized by its high levels of moisture- southeastern coasts of Japan, mainland China, Australia, Africa, South American, and the United States. Warm ocean currents are found there. The winds that blow across these currents bring in a warm moist air all year round. Long warm summers; short, mild winters. This climate supports more people than any of the other climates.
Found in Western Europe, the British Isles, the Pacific Northwest of the US, the western coast of Canada, southern Chile, southern New Zealand, and southeastern Australia. Near or surrounded by water. A mild rainy climate, daily temperature in the summer is around 70 degrees or below, and it rarely reaches freezing in the winter.
Unique to high mountains. The temperature at the bottom of the mountain could be hot and rainy, but become cooler as you move up and cold and snowy at the top. This makes the lower area good for lowland crops, the middle area good for grazing sheep and growing corn.
The way of life of a group of people including not only art, music, and literature, but also beliefs, customs, languages, traditions, and inventions.
The study of the Earth's features, including the study of living things as it pertains to their location, the relationships of these locations with each other, how they came to be there, and what impact these have on the world.
Concerned with the locations of such features as climate, water, and land as well as how these relate to and affect each other
Studies the location, characteristics, and influence of the physical environment on different cultures around the Earth
is the only continent that contains just one country.
is made up of 54 separate countries including Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa, Zaire, Kenya, Algeria, Morocco, and Madagascar.
consists of 49 separate countries including China, Japan, India, Turkey, Israel, Iraq, Iran, Indonesia, Jordan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the Philippines.
has 43 nations including France, Russia, Malta, Denmark, Hungary, Greece, and Bosnia.
consists of Canada, the USA, the island nations of the West Indies, and the "land bridge" of Middle America, including Cuba, Jamaica, Mexico, Panama and other nations.
has the nations of Brazil, Paraguay, Ecuador, and Suriname.
the elements and characteristics of a place or region
an Earth feature or one human activity occurring throughout the entire world
Earth's physical features; what creates and changes them; their relationships to each other, and their relationships to human activities
human activity patterns and how they relate to the environment including political, cultural, historical, urban, and social geographical fields of study
Living resources, which can restock themselves if they are not over-harvested
Natural resources that cannot be regenerated in the same proportion in which they are used
The rise in nationalism at the end of the 19th century in Europe led to a series of alliances and agreements among European nations. These agreements eventually led to the First World War, as the nations called on their military allies to provide assistance and defense.
League of Nations
After the devastation of World War I, this was formed to promote peace, but it ultimately failed having no way to enforce these resolutions. From this failure, the
stared as an international assembly given the authority to arrange and enforce international resolutions.
Anyone who sells his or her ability to produce goods and services
Anything that is manufactured to be used in the production process
The land itself and everything occurring naturally on it (such as oil, minerals, and lumber)
The ability of an individual to combine the three inputs with his or her own talents to produce a viable good or service. The entrepreneur takes the risk and experiences the losses or profits.
An economy that operates by voluntary exchange in a free market and is not planned or controlled by a central authority
Centrally planned economy
The opposite of the market economy, the means of production are publicly owned, with little, if any private ownership
A mixed economic system that uses both markets and planning
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