APUSH America's History Henretta Part 5 (13,14,15,16)
Terms in this set (82)
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Declared formerly enslaved people to be citizens and granted them equal protection and rights of contract, with full access to the courts.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Scholar/historian. He believed that by 1890 the frontier was over. Argued that it helped shape American National character. Claimed land in the was free for the taking.
In 1853 President Pierce bought Arizona and New Mexico hoping to make them slave states.
Buffalo Bill Cody
Hired Indians in traveling circus of wild west.
John Wesley Powell
One armed union veteran predicted big agricultural trouble in great plains this his plan was to get irrigation, build dams and canals. US rejected this.
Really radical fierce opponent of slavery and discrimination against Blacks.
Ghost Dance Movement and Wounded Knee
Harmless dancing to bring back bison and a great storm to push whites back.
Whites saw this as a threat and at wounded knee killed lots in a decisive battle.
Leader of the Nez Perces (nose pierce) tried to lead a fleeing to Canada. They tried hard but were eventually forced to surrender close to Canada.
Sitting Bull and Geronimo
Leader of Lakota at Battle of Little Big Horn, they actually won.
Lead Apaches to attack, but was defeated.
Gold Standard and crime of 1873
US switches to backing money with almost totally gold.
Only Bland-Allison act in 1878 let some silver be minted.
Crime because it devalued silver. Average money circulating drop 30 to 20 per person.
Munn vs. Illinois
1877. Supreme court says states could regulate key businesses that are "clothed in the public interest"
Very soon with clause of 14th amendment "due process" shielded corporations from this to keep economy growing.
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854. Commodore Matthew Perry made Japanese officials sign a treaty that allowed US ships to refuel at two ports. And for a US consulate to be built in Edo, later known as Tokyo. Japan wanted isolation while US wanted coal.
The Slaves that moved during Civil war and abolitionists tried to save them. Basically don't buy the recently escaped slaves.
Confederacy in April 1862 after battle of Shiloh, exempted one white man for every 20 slaves and pay for a substitute. State judges tried to use habeas corpus to save reluctant draftees but was overturned by Confederate congress.
Battle of Little Big Horn and Custer's Last stand
Us army gets defeated, lots of negative publicity for Indians.
1868. All persons born or naturalized in the US were citizens. No state could abridge privileges or immunizes of citizens. When people essential rights were threatened federal government could intervene.
Ohiyesa/ Dr.Charles Eastman
A fully accredited doctor, one of the first Indians to do so. Wrote books. Symbolizes the new life the whites wanted them to live.
Pro and anti slavery people came to Kansas and fought preparing to vote for their respective opinion. Because popular sovereignty is a thing.
Jobs+ Money. Built between 1863-1839. "Pacific Railroad" Thought it could "preserve the union" Contemporary perspective: A Peaceful Achievement.
Modern perspective: Conquered native people but it was great for the rest of America. Abused Chinese immigrant workers
Ten Percent Plan
Lincoln's plan: have 10% voters loyalty oath and approve 13th amendment (abolish slavery)
Sand Creek Massacre
November 29 1864. Chivington's colored militia kills Indian women and Children.
Scorched Earth Campaign
General Phillip Sheridan burnt everything during civil war.
The football team. 80,000 went to California in 1849 Gold Rush.
March to the Sea
After Atlanta in Flames General Sherman Marches 300 miles to Atlantic ocean burning everything yo.
1846. A proposal by David Wilmot. Anti slavery democratic congressman called for ban on slavery in any territories gained from the Mexican-American war. It was rejected in fear of causing a civil war.
Morrill Act and Land Grant Colleges
Set aside 140 million federal acres to sell to fund public universities. Goal was to broaden education opportunity and increase technology and science.
Personal- liberty laws
States in north guaranteed right of jury trial to all residents.
Ableman vs Booth: Supreme court case said Fugitive state law was unconstitutional because it violated rights of Wisconsin citizens.
"Fifty-four forty or fight"
James K Polk insisted that the US defy British claims of Oregon territory but ended up not acting on this because Mexican-American war started. Not good to fight wars on two fronts.
Believed that Asia would be very important. Urged senate to purchase land in both Caribbean and Pacific. Wanted this for naval bases and refueling. He was pro annexation of Hawaii.
Gold and Silver rush saw lots of ghost towns. Nevada's Virginia city is a big example. Mexicans who works there got paid a lot less than whites.
protects male citizen's rights to vote irrespective of race, color or previous conditions of servitude.
Seward in 1868 got congress to approve this. Let US missionaries into China and also set terms for emigration of Chinese Laborers.
Origin in anti-immigrant and anti-catholic movements. Prohibit further immigration and literacy tests for voting. Anti-German and anti Irish.
Bitterly opposed to slave power. Used wartime legislation to destroy slavery.
Plural wife living in Utah, a Mormon. Led local women rights group. Server as an editor for a newspaper.
Raised on manufactured goods. Textiles, steel for the north and west while wool and sugar for the south. Gave US manufactures advantage for those that did not have to pay it. Government paid off civil war debt, 2.1 billion and ended up with a surplus fund.
Slavery follows the flag
Calhoun asserts that planters could by right take their slave property into new territories.
Lone Wolf vs Hitchcock
1903. Congress could make Indian policies ignoring existing treaties.
War and Peace democrats
War: Keep on fighting civil war. Peace: Referred to as copperheads who wanted to end civil war. Both in north.
Western expansion. Anglo- American Cultural and racial superiority others would be subjects to American dominion.
Dawes Severalty Act
1887. Dream of a Senator from Massachusetts. Henry C Dawes. Leader of Indian Rights Associations wanted elimination of reservation and give land ownership to Indians back fires, Indians screwed.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Full and equal access to Jury service and public transportation accommodations, irrespective of race.
Grant goes hard against KKK and effectively ends their existence for a couple of decades.
Slaughter- House Cases
US v Cruikshank
Civil Rights Cases
Undermined 14th Amendment and ruled that states reserved rights for voting unless state violate those rights gutting civil rights.
Massachusetts senator leader of antislavery forces. He was a radical republican that wanted to destroy the confederacy, free all slaves and keep on good terms with Europe.
Yellowstone National Park and US Fisheries Commission
First national park people want to preserve nature.
Recommended to stem decline in fishes.
Freedman's Savings and Trust Company
Worked with Freedmen Bureau but bank failed. Party of Reconstruction was losing its moral gloss.
Congress proposed tougher requirements for states to be allowed back in. Required oath from 90% of adult white men. Lincoln pocket vetoed it.
Did not free a single slave because it only ended slavery instates that rebelled.
Mobilize all of society's resources- economic, political and cultural used during civil war.
6,000 Blacks in 1879 fleeing poverty and white violence go to Kansas. 1880 census saw 40,000 there.
Dred Scott vs Sandford
1857. Dred Scott claimed residence in a free state and free territory made him free but he failed and instead supreme justice Taney rolled back all progress made up to that point.
Have particular manners, attitudes, and catholic religion. Wealthy Mexican Ranchers, wealthy women from east married them when they moved to California.
American Woman Suffrage Association
Remained loyal to republican party hoping to get suffrage later.
National Woman Suffrage Association
Focused exclusively on women's rights.
Minor V Happersett
Ruled that suffrage rights were not inherent in citizenship so sates could deny women vote.
State officials allowed private companies to hire out prisoner in mines and other industries.
Compromise of 1850
Fugitive slave act: give federal support to slave catchers admitted California as a free state abolished slave trade in DC. Invoked popular sovereignty in New Mexico and Utah.
Depicted slavery as a threat to republicanism and Jeffersonian ideal of a freeholder society. William Lloyd Garrison and other radical abolitionists condemned Free Soiler's stress on racial "whitemanism"
Two parts. One part which was approved by congress called for constitutional protection of slavery in states that already had it. But 2nd part was rejected. It was to expand Missouri Compromise line to California Border. Lincoln said no because people would call imperialistically to conquer Cuba.
Congress would allow settlers in each territory to determine its status as free or slave.
A territory's residents could exclude slavery by adopting laws to protect it. Presented by Douglas a senator.
President during Civil war. Really good at politics. Emancipation proclamation and Gettysburg Address.
President of Confederacy
Robert E Lee
Primary General of Confederacy
Primary General of Union at first until Lincoln decided he was too soft.
Ulysses S. Grant
William T. Sherman
Brought about total war: By 1864 Sherman had become convinced that preservation of the Union was contingent not only on defeating the Southern armies in the field but, more importantly, on destroying the Confederacy's material and psychological will to wage war.
1862. Gave 160 acres of federal land to anyone who accepted and improved it. Natives were there though so what about morals? It was really hard to deal with that much harsh land. See Powell.
Southern Whites who supported reconstruction
Arrivals form North to South
Final military action of civil war.
Robert E Lee. Pickett's charge failed. First real battle that Confederacy and it started the Civil war going in favor of union.
In just over two minutes, Lincoln reiterated the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union sundered by the secession crisis, with "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens. Lincoln also redefined the Civil War as a struggle not just for the Union, but also for the principle of human equality. Gotta love Wikipedia.
Nathan Bedford Forest
March 1865 Congress made it to aid displaced blacks and other war refuges.
1865. Designed to fore former slaves back to plantation labor. Codes reflected plantation owners economic interests.
Freemen worked as renters exchanging their labor for use of land, house, implements, seed, and fertilizer. Often got them into debt.
1854. William L Marcy urges Pierce to seize Cuba but did not happen.
Fetterman and 80 soldiers ambushed and killed in revenge of Sand Creek Massacre.
Kansas- Nebraska Act
Repealed Missouri Compromise of 1820. Giving popular sovereignty in Kansas and Nebraska.
Adams, Kent. Accused Polk of waging war of conquest to add new slave states and give slave owning Democrats permanent control of federal government troops deserted in droves as a result.
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