21 terms

Chapter 12: DNA Technology

STUDY
PLAY
biotechnology
manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products
DNA technology
studying, manipulating, modifying specific genes, and moving genes between species
recombinant DNA
scientists combine pieces of DNA from two or more difference sources to form a single DNA molecule
genetic engineering
the direct manipulation of genes for practical purposes
genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
organisms that have acquired one or more genes by artificial means
transgenic organisms
contains a gene from another organism
plasmid
small circular DNA molecules that replicate separately from the larger bacterial chromosome
vectors
DNA carriers that move genes from one cell to another
gene cloning
the production of multiple identical copies of a gene-carrying piece of DNA
restriction enzymes
cut DNA at specific nucleotide sequences
restriction fragments
pieces of DNA with "sticky ends" important for joining DNA from different sources
DNA ligase
connects the DNA pieces into continuous strands
genomic library
collection of cloned DNA fragments for a species
nucleic acid probe
short single strand of DNA with a complementary sequence and labeled with a radioactive isotope or fluorescent dye
forensics
scientific analysis of evidence from crime scenes
polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
technique to copy quickly and precisely a specific segment of DNA
gel electrophoresis
a method for sorting macromolecules by their electrical charge and size
RFLP analysis
DNA molecules are exposed to a restriction enzyme, producing fragments that are compared and made visible by gel electrophoresis
Human Genome Project
determined the nucleotide sequence of all the DNA in the human genome and identify the location and sequence of every gene for humans
whole genome shot-gun method
the entire genome is chopped into fragments using restriction enzymes all the fragments are cloned and sequenced
proteomics
the systematic study of the full set of proteins found in an organism