20 terms

Ch 14: How Biological Diversity Evolves

STUDY
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speciation
the process in which one species splits into two or more
species
a group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed with one another in nature to produce fertile offspring
prezygotic barriers
prevent mating or fertilization between different species
postzyotic barriers
reduce hybrid viability and fertility
allopatric speciation
geographic isolation that fragments a single population into two or more isolated populations
sympatric speciation
populations live together in the same area, occurs often in plants, yet separate into different species
punctuated equilibrium
long periods of little genetic change interrupted by short periods of rapid change
evo-devo
study of the evolution of developmental processes in multicellular organisms
homeotic genes
master genes that control: rate, timing, body plan development
paedomorphosis
retention into adulthood of features that were solely juvenile in ancestral species
geologic time scale
divides Earth's history into a consistent sequence of geologic periods
radiometric dating
based on the decay of radioactive isotopes found in fossils, which helped establish the geologic time scale
systematics
classifying organisms by their evolutionary relationships
taxonomy
identification, naming, and classifying of species
binomial nomenclature
two name naming system that gives the genus and species names
phylogenetic trees
depict hypotheses about the evolutionary history of species
convergent evolution
similar structures from different evolutionary branches that result from natural selection shaping analogous adaptations
cladistics
organisms grouped by common ancestry
clade
consists of an ancestral species and all of its evolutionary descendants and forms a distinct branch in the tree of life
three-domain system
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya