Terms in this set (35)
Argument based on appeals to the prejudices, desires and fears of the reader rather than to the merits of the issue.
An image based on comparison and used to clarify or explain. Revolves around the principle that two things which resemble one another in a number of respects resemble one another in a further, unconfirmable respect.
The repeating of words or phrases, usually in close proximity to one another, in a poem, essay, or other literary work.
A specific kind of repetition. It is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses or verses.
The juxtaposition of contrasting ideas, often in parallel structure.
The reader or listener to whom a speech or piece of writing is addressed, the intended reader or listener.
The implied overtones of a word - the coloration or shade of meaning the word suggests; the emotional and tonal qualities that come to be associated with words.
A method of proof proceeding from general assertions to specific conclusions.
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word.
A method of investigation that involves the asking and answering of questions.
A syllogism in which the major or minor premise is left unstated. Often called a rhetorical syllogism.
Logical errors. Conclusions or generalizations that do not follow from the premises.
This defines language that transforms or enlarges meaning in a text. It manipulates the connotations of words and phrases to create special meanings or effects.
A form of exaggeration. The use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect.
A phrase or figure of speech that cannot be understood by knowing the definitions of the words that make up the phrase.
A method of proof proceeding from examination of particulars to general conclusions.
An argument based on an appeal to the emotions of the audience.
A form of understatement. A figure of speech where a thing is affirmed by denying its opposite, as in "he is not ungenerous."
The substitution of a word closely associated with an object for the name of the object itself.
The use of like grammatical structures in two or more sentences. The similarity of structure in pair or series of related words, phrases or clauses.
The "substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name or of a proper name for a quality associated with the name." This is also called a circumlocution, which comes from the Latin for "speaking around".
Asking a question, not for the purpose of eliciting an answer but for the purpose of asserting or denying something obliquely, that is indirectly.
A figure of speech involving a deviation from the ordinary pattern or arrangement of words. An example would be a statement like: "Honorable is the man who gives his life for his country."
Selection of Detail
This is something like diction except that instead of focusing on specific word choices the author makes it focuses on the individual pieces of evidence the author uses to support her or his argument. (Often ignores details that contradict the author's purpose)
Use of a word understood differently in relation to two or more other words, which it modifies or governs.
A logical form consisting of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion.
Comparison and contrast in parallel clauses (it is a kind of antithesis). "Ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country."
Using the name of the whole for the part, or the part for the whole.
In literature the term is applied to descriptions of one kind of sensation in terms of another; color is attributed to sounds, odor to colors, and so on.
How words are organized into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
The purpose statement or the central point of an argumentative essay. Often used synecdochicly to refer to the essay itself.
A figure of speech involving a deviation from the ordinary and principle signification of a word. A trope is a transference of meaning.
Somewhat like syllepsis except the single word does not fit grammatically or idiomatically with one member of the pair. For example, "He works his work, I mine." (Tennyson) "He works his work" makes grammatical sense but "I works mine" does not.
An argument that relies on an appeal to the audience's reason or intellect.
An argument that relies on the persuasive value of the speaker's or writer's personality or character.