Like this study set? Create a free account to save it.

Sign up for an account

Already have a Quizlet account? .

Create an account

Anatomy and Physiology II Chapter 19

The upper respiratory system includes the ____ and ____.

nose & pharynx

The lower respiratory system includes the ____, ____, and ____.

trachea, bronchi, & lungs

____ has internal and external portions.


____ (____) has two openings on the undersurface of the external nose.

external nares (nostrils)

What are the 3 functions of the interior structures of the nose?

1. filter, mositen, and warm incoming air
2. receive olfactory stimuli
3. modify speech sounds through hollow resonating chambers

____ two posterior openings through which the internal nose communicates with the pharynx.

internal nares

Ducts from all of the sinuses also communicate with the ____.

internal nares

____ is the space inside the internal nose and is divided into seperate halves by the ____.

nasal cavity; nasal septum

The anterior portion of the nasal cavity is the ____.


____ subdivides the nasal cavity into 3 meatus (passages).

superior, middle, inferior conchae

Air entering the ____ and ____ is warmed by the blood in nearby ____.

conches & meatuses; capillaries

____ (_____) consists of 3 portions and is the passage for food and air.

pharynx (throat)

____ is also known as the voice box.


____ is a short passageway (for air only) that connects the laryngopharynx with the trachea.


The wall of the larynx is composed of ____ cartilage pieces.


What are the 9 cartilage pieces of the larynx.

1. thyroid cartilage
2. laryngeal prominence ?
3. cricoid cartilage
4 & 5. arytenoid cartilage x2
6 & 7. cuneiform cartilage x2
7 & 8. corniculate cartilage x2
9. epiglottis

____ also known as the Adam's Apple.

thyroid cartilage

____ forms anterior wall of the larynx giving it a triangular shape and is larger in males due to sex hormones.

thyroid cartilage

____ is a ligament that connects the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone.

thyrohyoid membrane

____ is the inferior wall of the larynx.

cricoid cartilage

____ is the landmark for an emergency airway known as a tracheostomy.

cricoid cartilage

____ are located at the posterior and superior border of cricoid cartilage.

arytenoid cartilages

____ attach to the vocal cords and intrinsic pharyngeal muscles providing support for the intrinsic muscles which move the vocal cords.

arytenoid cartilages

____ are horned-shaped elastic cartilages located at the apex of each arytenoid cartilage.

corniculate cartilages

____ are cone-shaped elastic cartilages which provide support to vocal folds and lateral aspects of the epiglottis.

cuneiform cartilage

____ are attached to the upper border of the thyroid cartilage and supports a flap know as the ____.

epiglottic cartilage; epiglottis

____ is a flap that seals the glottis during swallowing.


____ is the opening between the vocal cords.


When air is moved against the vocal cords, they ____ and ____; the ____ the force of air - the greater the ____.

vibrate & create sound; greater; sound

____ is controlled by tension on the vocal cords; the ____ the tension - the higher the ____; the ____ the tension - the lower the ____.

pitch; higher; pitch; lower; pitch

Men have ____ and ____ vocal cords than women, which vibrate _____ creating a lower pitch.

thicker & longer; slower

____ is also know a the "windpipe".


____ is approximately 5 in. long and is located anterior to the esophagus; it extends from the larynx to the 5th thoracic vertebra (thoracic cavity) where it _____ into left and right ____.

trachea; bifurcates; primary bronchi

Within the wall of the trachea are about 16-20 ____ rings of hyaline cartilage which form the basic structure; the open porion of these rings is ____ ,next to the esophagus; these rings allow for the ____ of the esophagus during swallowing and prevents inward ____ during inspiration.

C-shaped; posterior; expansion; collapse

____ muscle bridges the gaps between the open ends of the C-shaped pieces of hyaline cartilage within the wall of the tracheal wall.


The ____ have a superior pair known as ____ and an inferior pair known as ____.

vocal cords; false vocal cords; true vocal cords

____ is the internal ridge, of the trachea, at the point of bifurcation.


____ is very sensitive mucous membrane that easily triggers the cough reflex.


____ (respiratory) is very thin and allows for rapid exchanges of respiratory gases.

alveolar-capillary membrane

There are about ____ million alveoli in each lung yeilding a total surface area between 70-80 meters square meters - about (nearly 1/2) the size of a tennis court for the exchange of gases.


The bronchial tree branches into what structures (list in proper order)?

trachea > primary bronchi > secondary bronchi > tertiary bronchi > bronchioles > terminal bronchioles > respiratory bronchioles > alveolar bronchioles and alveoli

As branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive ____ major structural changes occur.


One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that epithelium grandually changes from ____ in the bronchi to _____ in the terminal bronchioles and in the respiratory bronchioles, the epithelium lining changes from ____ to _____ (diffusion).

pseudostratified ciliated columnar; nonciliated simple cuboidal; simple cuboidal; simple squamous

One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that in the primary bronchi there are ____ rings of cartilage which are gradually replaced by ____ of cartilage which in turn disappear in the ____.

incomplete; plates; distal bronchioles

One of the three structural changes that occurs as branching of the bronchial tree becomes more extensive is that as cartilage ____ - smooth muscle ____; smooth muscle can ____ and ____ by chemical and neural stimuli.

decreases; increases; dilate & constrict

In the thoracic cavity the lungs are seperated by the contents of the ____.


____ cover and protect each lung.

pleural membranes

____ is the superficial layer that lines the wall of the thoracic cavity.

parietal layer

____ deep layer that directly covers the lungs.

visceral layer

____ space between the parietal layers and viseral layers that contains lubricating (serous) fluid which reduces friction during breathing.

pleural cavity

____ is the broad inferior section of the lung.


____ is the narrow superior section of the lung.


____ is the surface of the lung lying against the ribs.

costal surface

____ is the medial surface of the lungs.

mediastinal surface

____ is on the mediastinal surface of the lungs.


____ is the region through which bronchi, blood and lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter and exit.


____ on the left lung.

cardiac notch

____ is a concave area where the heart lies ( the right lung is ____, ____, and ____ than the left lung due to the space occupied by the ____).

cardiac notch; thicker, broader, & shorter; liver

____ is found in each lung.

oblique fissure

____ is a fissure that extends inferiorly and anteriorly dividing the lungs into superior and inferior lobes.

oblique fissure

the left lung has an ____ fissure only whereas the right lung has both an ____ and ____ fissure.

oblique; oblique and horizontal

The right lung had both oblique and horizontal fissures which divide the lung into ____, ____, and ____ lobes.

superior, middle, & inferior

_____ states that at a constant temperature, the volume of gas varies inversely with pressure.

boyle's law

____ is normal quiet breathing.


____ is temporary cessation (stop) of breathing.


____ is painful and labored breathing.


____ is rapid breathing (shallow).


____ is chest breathing; contraction of external muscles.

costal breathing

____ is deep abnormal breathing.

diaphragmatic breathing

____ involves numerous accessory muscles.

labored breathing

____ is an inwardly directed force.

surface tension

____ causes alveoli to become smaller.

surface tension

In order for the lungs to expand during inspiration ____ must be overcome.

surface tension

____ is a lipoprotein detergent-like chemical that reduces surface tension of alveolar fluid thereby reducing the tendency to collapse (lack of ____ causes respiratory distress syndrome in newborns).


____ is the ease with which the lungs and thoracic wall can be expanded; a ____ in alveolar pressure produces a ____ in lung volume.

compliance; small increase;large increase

____ is partial or complete collapse of a lung.


____ is any condition that narrows or obstructs airways (COPD, asthma, emphysema) and decreases compliance.

airway resistance

____ is an apparatus used to measure the volume of air exchanged during breathing and rate of ventilation.


____ is a graphic recording of respiration


On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as an upward deflection.


On a spirogram, ____ is displayed as a downward deflection.


____ is one inspiration and one expiration.


____ is the volume of one breath during normal quiet breathing.

tidal volume (TV)

____ of the tidal volume actually reaches the respiratory bronchioles.


____ of the tidal volume remains in the air spaces of the nose, pharynx, bronchi, and bronchioles; this is know as ____.

30%; anatomic dead airspace

____ accounts for nonfunctional alveoli; this must be considered dead space as well; no blood flows through the adjacent ____, therefore there is no exchange of ____ in the blood.

physiologic dead space; pulmonary vessels; oxygen

In the normal individual the anatomical and physiologic dead spaces are nearly ____, but in diseased populations the physiologic dead space can be as much as ____ times the anatomic dead space amounting to as much as ____ liters.

equal; 10; 1-2

____ is calculated by multiplying tidal volume by normal breathing rate.

minute volume of respiration

____ is the volume of air per minute that reaches the alveoli.

alveolar ventilation rate

____ is the additional inhailed air by taking a deep breath.

inspiratory reserve volume

____ is the volume of air that can be exhaled forcibly after normal inhailation.

expiratory reserve volume

____ is the volume of air that can be expelled from the lungs in 1 second with maximal effort following a maximal inhailation.

forced expiratory reserve volume

____ is the air remaining in the lungs after forceful expiration and helps prevent the collapse of the lungs.

residual volume

____ is the sum of IRV and TV.

inspiratory capacity

____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV.

vital capacity

____ is the sum of ERV and RV.

functional residual volume

____ is the sum of IRV and TV and ERV and RV.

total lung capacity

____ states that the volume of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature (assuming pressure is constant); as gases enter the warmer lungs, the gases expand increasing lung volume.

Charle's Law

____ states that each gas in a mixture of gases exerts its own pressure as if all of the other gases were not there; the partial pressure of a gas is the pressure exerted by that gas in a mixture of gases.

Dalton's Law

In _____ and ____ respiration O2 and CO2 diffuse from areas of their higher partial pressure to areas of their lower partial pressures.

internal & external

____ is the exchange of gases between the alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries.

external respiration (pulmonary respiration)

External (pulmonary) respiration results in the conversion of ____ blood (more CO2 than O2) coming from the heart to ____ blood (more O2 than CO2) returing to the hear

deoxygenated; oxygenated

External (pumonary) repiration depends upon ____ differences, a large surface area for ____, s small diffusion distance across the respiratory membrane (alveolar-capillary), and minute volume of respiration.

partial pressure; gas exchange

____ is the exchange of gases between tissue blood capillaries and tissue cells (by diffusion).

internal (tissue) respiration

____ results in the conversion of ____ blood to ____ blood.

internal (tissue) repiration; oxygenated; deoxygenated

Internal (tissue) respiration at rest allows only about ____% of the available ____ in oxygenated blood actually enters the tissue cells, but exercise ____ this percentage.

25; oxygen; raises

In each 100 ml of ____ blood, 1.5% of the oxygen is dissolved in ____ and 98.5% is carried with ____ inside the red blood cells as ____.

oxygenated; plasma; hemoglobin (Hb); oxyhemoglobin

Hemoglobin consists of a protein portion called ____ and a pigment portion called ____ which contains 4 atoms of ____, each capable of combining with a molecule of ____.

globin; heme; iron; oxygen

The ____ is the most important factor that determine how much ____ combines with hemoglobin: the ____ the pressure, the more oxygen will combine with hemoglobin, until the available molecules are ____.

pressure of oxygen (pO2); oxygen; greater; saturated

____ graphically illustrates the relationship between the percent saturation of hemoglobin and pressure of oxygen (pO2).

oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve

Numerous factors affect the association of oxygen and hemoglobin such as ____, ____, and ____.

acidity (pH), pCO2, & temperature

In an ____ enviroment, oxygen (O2) ____ more readily from hemoglobin; (low blood pH can result from ____); this will shift the curve to the ____.

acid; splits; high pCO2; right

Decreased ____ (and elevated pH) shifts the curve to the ____.

pCO2; left

Within limits, as temperature ____, so does that amount of ____ released from hemoglobin. ____ cells require more oxygen, and active cells, such contracting muscle cells, ____ more acid and heat, stimulating the ____ to release its oxygen.

increases; oxygen; active; liberate; oxyhemoglobin

Carbon monooxide (CO) poisoning occurs because ____ binds more strongly to ____ than ____ does, decreasing the oxygen carry capacity of the blood, leading to ____.

CO; hemoglobin; oxygen (O2); hypoxia

____ is oxygen deficiency and the tissue level.


The respiratory center of the brain consists of the ____ area, ____ group ____ group, and the ____ group formerly known as the ____ area and ____ area.

medullary rhythmicity; dorsal respiratory; ventral repiratory; pontine respiratory; pneumotaxic; apneustic

____ controls the basic rhythm of respiration; normal resting - ____ second inspiration and ____ second expiration (rate will vary from __-__ breaths per minute).

medullary rhythmicity area; 2; 3; 12-20

____ stimulates muscles of inspiration (diaphragm).

dorsal respiratory group

____ stimulates intercostals and abdominals; during forceful breathing some of these neurons increase inspiratory efforts and others stimulate expiratory efforts.

ventral respiratory group

____ sends impulses that limit inspiration and facilitate expiration preventing overexpansion of the lungs.

pneumotaxic area

____ send impulses to the inspiratory area that activate it and prolong inspiration, inhibiting expiration.

apneustic area

Chemoreceptors located in the walls of various arteries respond to changes in ____ concentration or ____; pCO2 normally equals ____ Hg in the arteries; a slight increase in pCO2 results in ____.

H+ (hydrogen ion); pCO2 (pressure of carbon dioxide): 40 mm; hypercapnia

____ is when the inspiratory areas to become highly active which increases the rate and depth of breathing (hyperventilation).


____ is when the inspiratory areas become more inactive decrease the rate and depth (slow and shallow) of breathing (hypoventilation).


pCO2 levels determine the ____ and ____ of breathing.

rate & depth

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again


Reload the page to try again!


Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

Voice Recording