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Embalming Pathology Unit 10

Embalming Pathology Unit 10
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Acne
Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles of the skin. Associated with seborrhea (increased secretion of sebaceous glands). Characterized by papules, comedomes, pustules. Cysts and nodules may developed, scarring common.
Comedomes (comedos)
Small lesion of acne; whiteheads and blackheads.
Whiteheads
Closed comedo; papule from which the contents are not easily expressed, may become inflamed.
Blackheads
Open comedo; papule that is rarely inflamed. Oily contents are easily expressed.
Abscess
Localized collection of pus in any part of the body that results from invasion of pyogenic bacterium causing inflammation. Inflammation may result in disintegration or displacement of tissue. Untreated, may invade surrounding tissues.
Syphilis
Infectious chronic STD; may involve any organ or tissue. Disease may exist asymptomatic for years. Transmitted sexually or in utero, can accompany gonorrhea. Three stages.
Stage 1: Primary Syphilis
Painless hard chancre. Usually found on prepuce (foreskin of penis) or vulva.
Stage 2: Secondary Syphilis
Approximately 6 weeks after primary lesion, widespread lesions may appear on skin and mucous membranes. may have headache, malaise, fever, may be asymptomatic.
Stage 3: Tertiary Syphilis
As long as 30 years after primary stage. Heart and blood vessel damage. Central nervous system damage. Formation of gumma (tumor-like lesion) on skin and organs. Dementia may result.
Seborrheic dermatitis
Disease of sebaceous glands. Overproduction of sebum. Excess sebum causes these glands to clog. Results in acne and causes yellow or gray scale or crust. Elevated patches with red borders on the body.
Melanocytic Nevus
Pigmented nevus (mole) containing melanocytes (melanin forming cells).
Malignant melanoma
Serious skin cancer; highly malignant and metastasizes early. Most common in fair-skinned people. Risk increased with sun exposure. May develop from mole that undergoes transformation. Px depends on depth, spread, etc.
Basal cell carcinoma
Central depression may ulcerate and/or bleed. Develops on face of fair skin persons who are exposed to sun but do not tan.
Squamous cell carcinoma
More serious than basal; rapidly infiltrates underlying tissues. Metastasizes through lymph channels. Develops on squamous epithelium. Common in persons exposed to the sun. Lesions are crusted nodules that ulcerate and bleed.
Vitiligo
Melanin disappears from patches of normally pigmented skin. White patches; surrounded by areas of normal pigmentation. Autoimmune disease - destruction of melanocytes.
Impetigo
Highly infectious; seen most frequently in children. Face and hands most often affected. Oozing vesicles and pustules which rupture and form crusts. Autoinfection occurs from exudate.
Eczema
Non-contagious inflammatory skin disorder. Caused by various agents; allergens, chemicals, irritation. May have a variety of lesions (papules, vesicles, pustules, scales, crust) in combination with itching and burning.
Hives (Urticaria)
Vascular reaction of skin; characterized by general eruption of papules. Allergic response to foods, stress, external irritants. Severe itching.
Poison Ivy
Itch rash. Blisters. Caused by Rhus toxicodendron, a climbing vine.
Herpes Simplex
Viral infection, usually spread by contact with lesion, recurrence common. Fever blisters around mouth, lips, lesions around genitals. Painful eruptions, duration about 10 days. No cure.
Genital Warts
Viral infection; human papilloma. Wartlike growths on genital and anal areas. Sexually transmitted.
Tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils. May become enlarged and red. Difficult, painful swelling. Self-limiting disease. May be chronic.
Lymphangitis
Inflammation of lymph channels or vessels. Chills, fever, swelling, and pain. General red flush with raised border if infection is in deeper layers of skin; called blood poisoning.
Splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen; elongated reddish organ posterior to interior stomach. Produces RBC's, removes old ones. May be associated with hemolytic disease. Hemorrhage, anemia, and cirrhosis of the liber.
Lymphedema
Edmea due to obstruction of lymphatic vessels or venous obstruction; impairment of uptake of lymph by lymphatic vessels. Stagnation causes infection and consequent inflammatory response.
Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Malignant disorder. Characterized by painless enlargement of lymphoid tissue (cervical), splenomegaly. Curable malignancy 60-90%. Long periods of remission, cause unknown. Anorexia, weight loss, pruritis (itching), anemia, low-grade fever, night sweats, leukyocytosis. More men than women. 15-35 years of age.
Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma
Lymphosarcoma; several diseased of lymphatic origin that are not Hodkin's lymphoma. Burkitt's Lymphoma. Mononucleosis.
Burkitt's Lymphoma
causes malignant bone destroying lesions of jaw or abdominal mass in children. Responds well to chemotherapy. caused by Epstein-Barr virus.
Infectious Mononucleosis
Acute herpes virus infection. Group of solid malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue. Transmitted by droplet. Fever, sore throat, swollen lymph glands, bruising.