Upgrade to remove ads
World History: Patterns of Interaction Chapter FINAL chapters 1-17
Study guide for final. HAPPY STUDYING!!!
Terms in this set (367)
Chapters Thirteen and Fourteen- the middle ages
chapters 13 and 14
The Middle Ages
the end of Rome and the beginning of the Renaissance.
-The Middle Ages were important because it started a new society, a new government system, the place of the church and a whole new way of life.
-The Germanic people who lived in Gaul, a Roman providence, and established a strong empire in the middle ages.
-The Franks were important because they helped spread christianity through the region and were great fighters in defense of the Germanic kingdom.
Battle of Tours
Charles Martel:leader for Franks, invaded north, south, and east of their region, They fought against the Muslims and had a major
in that battle.
-The Battle of Tours was important because if the Franks lost, most of Western Europe would have to become part of the Muslim empire. Also, this battle made Charles Martel a great Christian hero.
Treaty of Verdun
-Before the death of Charlemagne, this treaty was signed so that his three sons, Lothair, Charles the Bald, and Louis the German, would split the empire into three kingdoms, one for each son.
-The Treaty of Verdun was important because of the weak kingdoms in need for a new system for governing and landholding, feudalism.
A policy of treating someone as if they were children, providing for their needs but not giving them rights.
A woman who is the leader of the family or group.
The matriarchs were important because they protected the castle.
-A placing in higher value based on material possession.
-Maternalism was important because it showed the different social classes easily and made the kings granting/ giving something to their amazing knights easier; the king could give him a section of his abundance of land.
-Church religious communities made up of monks who devoted themselves to God.
-Monasteries were important because they built the church, supported the christian traditions, and helped teach the religion across Europe.
-Concerned with worldly rather than spiritual matter.
-It was important that the power became secular because they helped the poor, raised armies, and repaired the roads, which helped get the government more organized made the kingdom seem more welcoming and kinder to attract more people.
-A Frankish dynasty started by Pepin the Short (Charlemagne's father) which ruled from 751 to 987.
-The Carolingian Dynasty was important because it brought a lot of power to the Franks through the ruling of Charlemagne and how he and his army concord a lot of new territory and made the Frankish kingdom stronger.
Charles the Great
was a Germanic King who was a famous military leader, improved life, established order, improved education, and eventually crowned "Roman Emperor" by Pope Leo the Third. Built the greatest kingdom since ancient Rome. He was also 6'4''.
-Charlemagne was important because he helped bring a better life to the people in his Germanic kingdom and made4 the Germanic kingdom stronger.
-The Frank's leader who brought christianity to the area.
-Clovis was important because he brought christianity to the region and if they didn't believe that God would give them good luck if they converted, the christian religion wouldn't have been as big and the system of government would have been completely different. Also, Clovis would't have won that large battle against the the Muslims.
Pepin the Short
-The son of Charles Martel, he asked to become pope in exchange for fighting the invaders in Italy. Pepin then started the Carolingian Dynasty.
-Pepin the short was important because he started the major family dynasty and aided with the church through his whole time as royalty.
-The mayor of the palace in 719, he was the leader of the Franks and protected his area along with capturing new area too.
-Charles Martel was important because he prevented many areas from becoming Muslim and conducted a very successful army.
-Poems about hero's deeds and adventures.
-These were important because they were enjoyable by the ladies and brought some joy to them while their husbands were gone.
-A device attached to reach side of a horse making it easier to carry more things on a horse.
-Stirrups were important because they made hitting other opponents off their horses easier, giving the side with the best supply the strongest. Sa
-Saddles kept the knight on the horse more secure and helped him stay on the moving horse.
-Saddles were important because they helped plant the soldiers on moving horses and prevented from being knocked over by other opponents.
The Roles of Women
-The roles of women back in the middle ages were different based upon your social class.
had to do labor around the home and care for the children and families. The
protected the castle when being attacked, and were also military commanders.
-The roles of women were important because they had important
that needed to have been done.
Training of a Knight
-Knights were trained starting at age 7 and practiced fighting skills, then at age 14, was a servant to the Lord, and at age 21, became a full fledge knight. They then entered tournaments and helped in local battles.
-The training of a knight was important because without the training, the army would be weak and empty, so the kingdom would have very poor defense.
-A monk who wrote books saying the rules for monasteries, and his sister did the same for women.
-Benedict was important because if this book of rules wasn't made, wouldn't have stability.
Parts of a Castle
-Large, 11-foot thick walls surrounding to protect the castle
-Moats around castle so different battle strategies were important
Parts to a manor
-There was the manor house (lord's home), the village church, the peasant's cottages, the Lord's demesne (fields where work is done), peasant's croft (garden), the mill, common pasture (animal area), and the woodlands.
Weaponry of the Middle Ages
-Caltrops were spread on the battlefield so if anyone stepped on one, their foot would be majorly damaged. Saddles kept horsemen on moving horses. Stirrups made holding heavy weapons on horseback easier.
-These were important because they gave advantages to different sides during battles.
-The person who controls the land and could grant estates to vassals.
-Lords were important because they set up the whole feudal system ad had control over everyone in the manor.
Unified body of laws handed down over centuries by England's royal judges
-Norgegian and Danish people dressed in strange armor who invaded areas on large ships.
-Vikings were important because they were so strong that the small peasants families had no way to defend themselves against them.
-Hungarian invaders who invaded into Italy and France areas.
-Magyars were important because they were very strong and were always there when you least expected it.
-A follower of the Islam.
-Muslims were important because they wanted to spread their culture, but the german empires stopped them and their religion was not spread very far at all.
-An estate given by a vessel by a load under the feudal system.
-Fiefs were important because they changed the amount of power each person ha if they receive one of these of not, even if they are in the same social class.
-A person who receives a grant of land from the lord in exchange for a pledge of loyalty and service.
-Vassals were important because it showed how much power each person had based on the size of the vassal.
-An armored warrior who fought on horseback.
-Knights were important because they protected the kingdoms and manors from any invaders that were coming.
-A medieval peasant legally bound to live on the lord's estate.
-Serfs were important because they helped maintain the land and get the lord the stuff he needs.
-A lord's estate in Medieval Europe.
-Manors were important because they gave the peasants a place to love and had all necessities all in one spot.
-A family's payment of of one-tenth the income to a church.
-Tithes were important because they gave the char h a little money that they could use for food, tax, and necessities needed to have the church.
-A code of behavior for knights in Medieval Europe, stressing the ideals like courage, loyalty, and devotion.
-Chivalry was important because it helped narrow down the stronger, more dedicated soldiers from the ones who don't have as much loyalty or courage.
-Traveling poet-musicians at the castles and courts of Europe.
-The troubadours were important because they gave the women hope and happiness that their husbands are ok and that they aren't in too much danger. The lies make the women missing there husbands not as hard as they don't hear about the brutal stuff they are going through.
-A mocked battle between groups of knights.
-These were important because they help prepared knights for real i important fights.
-A political system where nobles and granted the use of lands that are legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.
-This is important because it set up the way of life for the next hundreds of years.
Why did people support the Church?
People support the church because after Clovis had said that if the Franks were to believe in God, they would be able to win against the Germanic army. GOOD LUCK after the battle win
What were Charlemagne's big achievements?
Charlemagne's big achievements were Building a strong empire I'm the germanic kingdoms, spreading Christianity, and becoming the most powerful king in Western Europe. Also, Charlemagne became the Emperor of Rome and encouraged learning throughout his area by making schools that trained future monks and priests.
What was the significance of the pope's declaring Charlemagne emperor?
The significance of Charlemagne becoming emperor was because he was nice, polite, and good with talking to other people and other countries. Also, Charlemagne's significance of becoming emperor was that he stood tall and was admired by all.
What was the outcome in the Battle of Tours?
In the outcome of the Battle of Tours, the Franks have won over the Muslims.
risk lives to advance the beliefs of Christians
men in monasteries; gave up all private possessions to pursue a life with god and to be servants of him
women in monasteries; lived in covenants and following the same religious way of life as monks
Benedict's sister who adapted the rules for women or nuns
English monk who wrote a history of England (best work of Middle Ages)
literally "mayor of the palace" - the most powerful person (official) in the kingdom; was in charge of the royal household & estates- was the unofficial commander of the armies and made policy.
Chapter two- Early river civilizations
the belief in more than one god
If you commit a crime then I will commit it to you
When a ruler passed their power on to their sons who eventually passed it to their own heirs, the series of rulers from a single family are called a dynasty.
Kings of Egypt who were considered gods. The pharaoh stood at the center of Egypt's religion, government, and army. He or she's duty was to promote truth and justice.
Book of the Dead
this was a collection of hymns, prayers and magic spells that were said to lead the person to the afterlife.
comes from the Greek words meaning sacred carvings. This was a system where pictures stood for words and ideas.
a stone in Rosetta. This stone contained a similar message in three languages. One being ancient Greek.
The pattern of rise, decline and replacement of dynasties.
The Zhou dynasty declared the Shang rulers and that the gods have given the right to rule to rule Zhou's. This eventually became known as the mandate of heaven.
Mandate of Heaven
This is viewed by the Chinese as divine approval of the person's right to rule. Became the explanation to natural disasters as well as civil strife. Once something went severally wrong the mandate was thought to have been passed on to another noble family.
Chapter Three-early river civilizations (cont.)
Europeans: They were nomadic peoples who came from the steppes, dry grasslands that stretched north of the Caucasus → between the Black/Caspian Seas.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
The Vedas was composed of four books, containing religious texts; they cover ritual, sacrifice, hymns, healing, incantations, allegories, philosophy, and problems of everyday life; originally, it was passed down orally.
dialogues/conversations between a student and teacher
, discussing liberation from disease and suffering, otherwise known as moksha, or perfect understanding. Hindu teachers tried to interpret and explain the hidden meaning of the Vedic hymns.
Karma and reincarnation
are some of their beliefs.
Vedas and Upanishads
are the texts.
being freed from the cycle of death and birth.
the soul or spirit, after biological death, can begin a new life in a new body.
Kind of like nirvana from Buddhism. Perfect understanding of all things.
Karma is known as a soul's good or bad deeds, deciding which caste an individual will be reincarnated into.
caste system was called the varnas. It consisted of Brahmins, the priests, Kshatriyas, the political leaders and warriors, Vaishyas, farmers, craftsmen/artisans and businessmen/traders, and the shudras, the laborers.
WHO:The founder of Buddhism,
ENLIGHTENMENT: who was born into a noble family living in Kapilavastu, in the foothills of the Himalayas in Nepal → destined to become a world ruler, he was isolated in the palace; he ventured out of the palace, deciding to spend the rest of his life searching for religious truth and the end to life's suffering.
Four Noble Truths
The main teaching of Buddhism involved the Four Noble Truths & The Eightfold Path. Life is filled with suffering and sorrow. The cause of suffering is selfish desire for pleasure. The way to end all suffering is to end all desires. The way to overcome desires and obtain enlightenment is to follow the Eightfold Path.
Along with Buddha and the dharma, holy text, Rejected the caste system, however women were reluctantly admitted
The first five disciples of Buddhism were admitted to the Sangha. This term eventually referred to the Buddhism community as a whole.
Both had rules to be followed, such as karma and the Eightfold Path, which was the Middle Way between desire and self: denial. Right Knowledge; Right Purpose (Thought) → Wisdom/Right Speech; Right Action; Right Living (Livelihood) → Conduct/ Right Effort; Right Mindfulness; Right Meditation (Concentration) → Mental Discipline
This is the end result of following the eightfold path. This is the release of selfishness and pain.
Minoans culture (CRETE)
Powerful seafaring people who lived on Crete, a large island on the Aegean Sea, and dominated trade in the area. Produced great pottery and had a great influence on the Greek. The place was called Minoa after King Minos, the king with the minotaur. This civilization end is unknown but one possible theory is that natural disasters destroyed the country. This civilization still lasted for 300 years though.
The Minoan capital city. These cities did not have fortifications and it was well advanced technologically and culturally so it can be assumed that this was a time of prosperity and peace.
Was a king with a Minotaur, a half human half beast, who was locked in a maze which no one could escape.
The most powerful traders after the Minoans declined. wealthy city, Great shipbuilders and seafarers, purple dyes and Byblos for papyrus. Traded many items such as wine, weapons and luxuries. Were great craftsman of wood, metal, glass and ivory. The red: purple dye they created was collected from a rotting snail found in waters off Sidon and Tyre.
The Phoenicians created the alphabet and it is one of its most prominent remains. Monotheism: the belief in only one god
the father of Jewish culture. He was a shepherd who lived in Ur, Mesopotamia. He promised land and the fact that god had told him to tell the people to go to Canaan.
Believers of Judaism
the most sacred writings of Hebrew tradition
Covenant: the mutual promise between God and the Hebrew people; the covenant was extremely important throughout history. At first, it involved Abraham's promise to obey Yahweh (God) and God's returned promise to protect the Hebrew people. Moses and God formed another covenant, as he was given the Ten Commandments, the basis for civil and religious laws.
a man who led the Hebrews out of slavery. It is said an Egyptian pharaoh felt threatened by so many babies, that he ordered all Hebrew male babies to be killed. Mose's mother hid the baby, where he was picked up by an Egyptian princess, and subsequently adopted. Moses is an important figure in Jewish history because he accordingly led the Hebrew people out of slavery. He spoke with God, and introduced the Ten Commandments. This formed a new covenant.
Judaism was founded by the Hebrews, later called the Jews, who greatly influenced Western culture, starting traditions shared by Christianity and Islam.
from about 1020 to 922 B.C.E., the Hebrews united under three able kings; the new kingdom was called Israel. The division between Israel and Judah kingdoms was caused by the discontent instilled during Solomon's rule, as he strained the kingdom's finances and labor force. Israel was in the north and Judah was in the south.
United the Hebrew tribes
Formed the capital of Jerusalem, (located down the Jordan River, near the Dead Sea)
and thus established a dynasty.
drove the Philistines from the hills of ancient Palestine.
Solomon was king at about the year 962 B.C.E.
He built a trading empire with the help of the king of the Phoenician city of Tyre.
King Solomon built a temple to glorify God.
The Jews were urged to keep their religion. In the foreign land of Babylon, as after Assyrians conquer Israel, Chaldeans attack Jerusalem and destroy Solomon's Temple, forcing Jews to live in Babylon. The Jews were allowed to return to Jerusalem and rebuild their Temple under Persian rule, Cyrus the Great had defeated the Babylonian Empire.
Chapter Four-first age empires
This was a strong country with an equally strong military. However ,UNLIKE the Assyrians they used diplomacy and tolerance to rule their territories. Its three major kings are mentioned below)
Cyrus: king of Persia in 550 B.C.E., he began to conquer neighboring kingdoms. He was a military genius, leading his army from victory to victory until 539 B.C.E. Eventually, his empire spanned 2,000 miles from the Indus River in the easy to Anatolia in the west. He was a good governor, as he was kind to conquered peoples, allowing them to keep religions, their temple and their customs. This allowed the Persian Empire to flourish. He allowed the Jews to rebuild their city and temple, earning the gratefulness of the Jews. They returned to Jerusalem in 538 B.C.E.
The successor and sun of Cyrus. Unlike his father he did not respect conquered people and did not follow religious tolerance. He burned all of the pictures of Egyptian gods and goddesses. He died 8 years after he got the throne.
he was a noble of the ruling dynasty that began his career as a royal bodyguard. He divided his empire into 20 different provinces (easy to govern)
An excellent system of roads allowed Darius to communicate quickly with the most distant parts of the empire.
Zoroaster was a Persian prophet who lived around 600 B.C. Zoroastrianism taught the existence of a struggle between evil and good. He taught that it is the duty of every person to partake in this battle. In addition, the religion teaches belief in a deity called Ahura Mazda,
was based on 5 key relations.
Ruler subject / Father son / Husband Wife / Older brother Younger Brother / Friend Friend urged education and believed education was the source of a good government
this is the act of respecting your parents during their lifetime and honoring them after their deaths with special ceremonies.
Believed that all life was ruled by Dao, the Way. This believed that only humans went against Dao questioning everything and that humans should just go with the flow and everything would be in harmony.
This dynasty replaced the Zhou dynasty. The rulers employed Legalist ideas to subdue the warring states and unify the country.
Means the first emperor. He stopped internal conflict and defeated invaders and those who opposed his rule. Because he went and crushed all the invaders by the time he was done China had doubled its size, districts and appointed Qin officials to control them. He also killed many scholars killed to avoid criticism he killed many Confusion scholars.
He also burned all books that were not practical.
a government that has unlimited power and uses it in an arbitrary manner as shown above.
This was built by connecting the walls erected by previous emperors. PROTECTION
This empire fell during the reign of Shi Huangdi's son. Three years after he came into power there was a peasant revolt and he was usurped from power. A peasant from Han took over China.
Chapter Seven-first age empires (cont.)
Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva
These three gods Brahma is the creator of all things. Vishnu is the preserver of all things, while Shiva is the destroyer.
a vast network of caravan routes used by traders to bring silk from China to western Asia and then to Rome Example of how India's land trade expanded to new regions East and West Indians developed the idea of acting as middlemen, go: betweens in business transactions Ex: Indian traders would buy Chinese goods and sell them to traders traveling to Rome to make a profit Indians also built trading stations along the Silk Roads Located at oases, fertile spots in desert areas
People are rebelling due to the harsh treatment put on them during Shi Huangdi's death Rival kings eager to get more land and control Raised armies and fought over territory
First Ruler = Liu Bang
Liu Bang turns against Xiang Yu (aristocratic general who let warlords have land as long as they saw him as the feudal leader) Final battle in 202 B.C. Bang declares himself first emperor of the Han Dynasty Liu's Goals Established centralized government (Shi Huangdi's idea)
Central authority controls the running of a state
Hundreds of local provincials called commanderies reported to Liu Bang Win popular support Departed from strict legalism Lower taxes and softened harsh punishments
Emperor Wudi (Wu
He is called the "Martial Emperor" because he adopted the policy of expanding the Chinese Empire through war. Achievements -- • Expanded Chinese Empire • Appointed qualified people to government jobs
Instead of writing, stories was passed down orally. One such storyteller was a blind poet named Homer. He composed his own epics, narrative poems celebrating heroic deeds between 750: 700 BC.
a city: state (consisted of the actual city and the surrounding countryside) There was a fortified hilltop
where citizens would gather to discuss city government
People elected to power; power of the people
The Greeks developed myths, traditional stories, about their gods. It was based on Homer's epics and Theogony by Hesiod.
slaves or people of the lowest class in the social/economical pyramid; peasants who were forced to stay on the land they worked on.
It is a city that stressed on fighting power and military skill. In general terms, strength, duty, and discipline were very important in there.
It is a city: state that moved toward democracy. First society to be democratic. Lack of a military class led to the growth of democracy. Only nobles could afford to fight, as they had to purchase their own weapons. → Later merchants and the common people could buy weapons (iron = cheaper and more abundant) and fight. Draco, Solon, and Cleisthenes helped reform Athens and lead it to being a democratic society.
He developed a legal code in 621 BC. IT said that all Athenians, no matter what class you are, were equal under the law. It dealt harshly against criminals. They faced the death penalty no matter what crime it was. He created debt slavery in which debtors worked as slaves to repay their debts.
introduced social economic reforms but no land reforms; he ended debt slavery in which people worked as slaves to repay huge debts. He separated society in four classes based on wealth. By doing so, there was an increase in political participation from the wealthy. Only top three classes could have a political office. (594 BCE)
He destroyed Solon's classification system and created a new system of classes based on where the citizens lived. He also increased the power of the assembly by allowing all citizens to submit laws for debate and passage. He created the Council of Five Hundred. It proposed laws and counseled the assembly. The members of the council were chosen by lot or at random.
Greek historian that pioneered the accurate recordings of the event. He wrote about the Persian wars : > really well
The Persian War
Battle over land between Persia and Greeks. 3 battles Marathon thermopylae platea. Strategy: Spartans by land athenians by sea. Greeks won the war!
It is a plain northeast of Athens. A Persian fleet of 25,000 men traveled across the Aegean Sea and landed in there. Right there, there were 10000 Athenians waiting for them. Although they were outnumbered, they were arranged in phalanxes and were experienced in the "battlefield." The Persians wore light armor and did know how to fight in that terrain. In the end, the Persians lost with more than 6000 casualties, while Athenians only lost fewer than 200 people.
The Battle of Thermopylae included 7000 Greeks and 300 Spartans that blocked the mountain pass near the city. Xerxes thought his army would prevail, but the Greek army managed to stop their advance for three days. When a traitor told the Persian army of a secret path around the pass, the Greeks started to fear for their defeat. The Spartans, however, stood their ground and fought against the approaching army as the rest of the Greeks retreated. Their sacrifice made a great impression on all Greeks.
He is Darius the Great's son and successor. Persian emperor who invaded Greece
a league dedicated to defeating Persia; Athens = leader of the league, Pericles used the money from the treasury to make Athens beautiful.
peak point in which direct democracy was at its highest level/perfection; he said a democratic society had three key characteristics: everybody had to obey/is equal before the laws, for men to be citizens, their parents had to be born in Athens + citizens themselves, and a person's class does not matter/only people with talent and skill could participate and lead in political events.
Pericles took money from the Delian League to beautify Athens. The Parthenon was a temple build to honor Athena.
Aeschylus wrote more than 80 plays. His most famous work was his trilogy Oresteia, based on the family of Agamemnon, the Mycenaean king who commanded the Greeks at Troy → idea of justice.
Sophocles wrote more than 100 plays, including the tragedies Oedipus the King and Antigone.
led to the birth of philosophies; Sparta versus Athens : > Athens = too much power; Athens= in siege, worn down after several years (both sides), had a truce; one battle = Athenians tried to destroy Syracuse, important city: state of Sparta in Sicily. Lost/ after nine years, they surrendered to Sparta, and lost everything.
great Athenian historian who believed that certain types of events and political situations recur over time. He studied the events + situations to understand the present.
Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
S : > questioned everything in the world, taught P. P: > book = The Republic, about three classes: gold (philosopher king), silver (army), tin (crafts person, merchants, etc.) Person with greatest insight +intelligence = chosen to be true king, taught A. A: > made the golden mean: not too much excesses : > middle class = good, stable, acted as middle ground; not too poor or too rich....
This era was when Greek, Egyptian, Persian, and Indian cultures/traditions blended together to form one culture, Hellenism. Hellenistic people had one common language, which was a dialect of Greek.
Arts and sciences of Hellenistic Era
Arts: for sculptures, Hellenistic sculptors moved away from perfect, graceful figures with their ideal face and body. Instead, they carved out ordinary people. They might be the elderly or even peasants. The sculptors at that era started to make sculptures and statues of everyday people. Science:
found out that the Sun was bigger than Greece.
estimated that the Earth's circumference is of 28000: 29000 miles.
currently found the value of (pi) and created the law of the lever/pulley.
Macedon (or Macedonia)
kingdom north of Greece (rough terrain + cold climate); had fearless and shrewd kings
king of Macedonia, made a strong phalanx, converted his peasants into well trained soldiers. He then invaded Greece. Greeks lost their whole land to Philip.
Alexander the Great
invaded Persia, defeated Persian armies + conquered Persia, moved to Egypt + crowned god: king, moved forward once more, conquered Persia's eastern territories. Conquered some parts of India; had to turn back because of low morale from his armies. Died at Babylon from a fever.
The main center of Hellenism. It was a good location for many trading ships to come and barter items with other traders from other civilizations.
mathematician who taught in Alexandria; best known book = Elements : > contained 465 "carefully presented geometry propositions and proofs." His work was the basis for courses in geometry.
Archimedes of Syracuse
he is a Hellenistic scientist who studied at Alexandria. He accurately estimated the value of pi (the ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter. He also explained the law of the lever. He was gifted in geometry and physics. HE also invented the Archimedes screw, a device that raised water from the ground and the compound pulley used to lift heavy objects. Using his ideas, Hellenistic scientists later built a force pump, pneumatic machines, and even a steam engine.
a type of troop which consisted of 16 men across and 16 deep. They had an 18 foot pike.
form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders (citizenship with voting rights = only given to free: born male citizens) There were representatives.
the nobles/aristocrats of Rome
the common people of Rome
5000 roman soldiers in different groups
(legend) one of the founders of Rome. The other founder is his twin brother, Remus. The twins were abandoned on the Tiber River as infants and were raised by a she: wolf. The grown twins then decided to build a city near the spot they were left at. BROTHER DIES SUDDENLY
Latins, Etruscans, Greek influence
The Etruscans were skilled metalworkers and the Romans accepted the Etruscans' alphabet. The Romans also were influence by the Latins and the Greeks. The Latin people lived on Palatine Hill in huts, which was near where the Romans lived. They were possibly the first Roman settlers. The Greeks had colonies at southern Italy (near the coastline).
place where all of the senators talked and discusses about certain topics
twelve tablets made by the plebeians to prevent patricians from manipulating the laws to their advantage and as they see fit. It was the basis of Roman law.
two officials, commanded the army and directed the government. Power = limited; could only serve for one year and they could not be elected again until after ten years
power given to the consuls. One consul could overrule the other's decisions.
aristocratic branch of Rome's government. It had legislative and administrative functions in the republic. They were 300 members that were patricians. Later, plebeians were able to in the Senate. They had great influence over both foreign and domestic policy. In more specific terms, they controlled foreign/financial policies and advises the consuls.
an empire who was an enemy against Rome. Carthage = opposing city that had control over the Western Mediterranean with its various trade route in the Mediterranean Sea. Founded by princess who fled Phoenicia to escape the king's brother who killed her husband (king), made agreements with local tribes + created city; Carthage had impenetrable walls and a huge, spacious harbor that allowed ships to easily enter and leave the harbor
a series of wars in which Carthage fought against Rome. The first Punic War was of them fighting over Sicily. Sicily was at the middle of Mediterranean Sea and was an important island because most of the trade routes around the sea went through this island. Hannibal's father led the battle at the First Punic War (lasted 23 years), but sadly, Carthage lost. In the second Punic War, after Carthage's short rest, Hannibal led the Carthegian army through Spain (a part of the Roman empire) and past the Alps. After passing through the Alps, he caught the enemy by surprise and ravaged Roman territory. In the Third Punic War,. Rome laid siege to Carthage and finally destroyed it after three years of trying to penetrate its impenetrable walls. At the end of this war, Rome gained full control over the Western Mediterranean.
the strategist/general who led the Carthegian army in the Second Punic War. His army went through Spain and past the Alps toward Rome. To get past the Rhone River in France, he told his builders to make rafts that were 200 ft long. It had earth and sticks on it to make the elephants on it think that it was still on ground. To get past the Alps and its huge boulders that blocked their path, Hannibal told his builders to dig through the boulders after heating the boulders with burning sticks and pouring vinegar on it. The vinegar created cracks which could be use to destroy the boulders. Once he was in Rome, he used the cavalry first to trick the enemy. Once the enemy fell for it and was surrounded, they were all slaughtered, while a few managed to either be captured or free (fled). Hannibal's army fell in Zama when defending Carthage. Instead of surrendering to Rome, he suicided. He had originally made a promise to his dad to defeat the Romans. He did not want to break it by surrendering so he killed himself.
slaves (strong healthy males/ppl captured from conquered lands) used in entertainment. They might fight animals or fight other professional fighters/gladiators.
a set of people who ruled Rome; there were three people who acted as one ruler. The first triumvirate consisted of Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus (wealthy Roman). In the battle for leadership, Crassus was killed in a battle not related to this event, while during that event, Pompey eventually was killed by the pharaoh of Egypt who offered his head to Caesar as a gift. The second triumvirate was composed of Mark Antony (Roman general), Octavian/Augustus (Caesar's grandnephew), and Lepidus (powerful politician). Lepidus also stepped down in the second civil war for power.
two brothers (Tiberius and Gaius) who were both tribunes. They tried to help the poor by doing land reforms. The reforms were about limiting the size of the estates and giving the land away to the proletariat. When Tiberius first proposed those ideas, to a poor man, it seemed like a miracle and fair, but to a landowner, that was plain robbery. In the end, when Tiberius was going to try to be reelected again, the senators and their followers clubbed him to death and threw him to the Tiber. When his brother, Gaius, became tribune, he tried to weaken the Senate by a series of law that he created and had "programs" that dealt with unemployment. The senators claimed that he was an enemy of the state. Eventually he and his followers died in one of Rome's hills when a group of senators and their slaves and foreign mercenaries attacked them.
a military commander and politician. Conquered most of Gaul and killed about one third of the people there. Named the governor of Gaul. Went to Britannica and tried to conquer it but he failed. Caesar = originally part of the First Triumvirate of Rome. Caesar's army crossed the Rubicon River and attacked Pompey's army in Rome. Caesar eventually
won and defeated Pompey
once more at Pharsalus in Greece Pompey soon died in Egypt. He granted citizenship to many provinces outside of Rome, expanded the Senate to 900 men, and made the senate more representative of the empire. He was assassinated by his best friend, Brutus, and fellow senators.
queen of Egypt who fell in love with Mark Antony. She and his army together fought against Octavian's army in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC. When they lost, she committed suicide along with him.
one of the main conspirators who killed Caesar; was known as Caesar's best friend/only person that he could trust.
Part of the 2nd Triumvirate; when it fell, Octavian defeated Lepidus and forced him to retire. Mark Antony fell in love with Cleopatra in Egypt. Octavian accused them of wanting to rule Rome from Egypt. Battle of Actium : >31 BC; naval battle and A/C lost the battle. Octavian won and made Egypt a province of Rome. Became the sole ruler of Rome. He became known as Augustus, the first emperor of Rome. Founded the civil service system which meant civil servants of the plebeians or free slaves managed the affairs of the government. Ruled for 41 years.
one of the Roman senators; lived in the time when Caesar was alive
200 years of roman peace which sparked more trading and less fear. (internal peace)
During the Pax Romana
Gladiator games were popular. Gladiator fights were held in the Colosseum (underneath it = system of pipes) Gladiators were usually captured soldiers from distant lands or slaves In the shows, wild animals such as tigers, lions, and bears fought each other or gladiators In other contests, gladiators engaged in combat with one another until one of them was killed Naval sea battles were also staged when water from pipes under the Colosseum let it rush out
Was the most important industry in the empire during this time. 90% of the people were engaged in farming
Additional food and luxury items for the rich were obtained through trade. In Augustus' time, a silver coin called a denarius was in use throughout the empire. This made trade = easier
Roman ships from the east traveled the Mediterranean protected by the Roman navy Cities such as Corinth in Greece, Ephesus in Anatolia, and Antioch on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean grew wealthy due to trade. Rome also traded with China and India.
A complex network of roads linked the empire to far away places as Persia and southern Russia.
Slavery was a significant part of Roman life. Almost 1/3 of the population was slaves Slaves were conquered peoples brought by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children.Occasionally they would rebel but no slave rebellions ever succeeded More than 1 million slaves lost their lives in rebellions
It was like the Greek's Parthenon except that it contained many Roman gods/goddesses for the Romans to worship.
Virgil was a poet, who produced some of the most famous work in Latin literature → the Aeneid (epic of Aeneas) → modeled after Homer. Great writers → Ovid wrote light, witty poetry. Amores wrote poetry about love. Livy wrote a history multi: volume, from origins to 9 B.C.E. Legends were used in his writings. Tacitus wrote accurate accounts of history → concerned with lack of morality. Annals/Histories stated the good and bad of imperial Rome, as well as disgust with Nero, a destructive emperor.
Religious man started preaching and gained support towards Christianity. Was Jewish. Christianity was based off his teaching and allegedly arose from the dead.
books written by probably the twelve apostles of Jesus Christ
Paul (Saul) of Tarsus
He was originally a Jew, but after he had a vision about Christ, he became a Christian. To help spread Christianity, he traveled all around Rome preaching to people of all classes and taught them that Jesus died for their sins. He officially said that Christianity was more of an actual religion rather than a different interpretation of the Jewish rules. So, finally, a group of believers met each other and created a set of beliefs that was officially true Christian beliefs.
Christianity → defined basic beliefs of the church. The Council of Nicea wrote it in 325 C.E. → described monotheistic God, who made all things, as well as the value of purity (the Virgin Mary), and crucification as divine punishment. The holy Catholic/apostolic Church → baptism/remissions of sins and resurrection. The father, son and Holy Ghost were the Holy trinity. The Creed also stated the idea of heaven after death.
fixed prices on goods to end inflation; doubled size of army, restored prestige of being an emperor by performing many fancy rituals to make himself look god: like; divided the empire in two (Greek speaking east and Latin speaking west). Controlled eastern half while co: leader governed western half. Next emperor would be Constantine....
a person fighting for leadership of Rome. Saw a cross when praying for divine help. He later won the battle of Rome. He declared Christianity as one of the approved religions in the empire during the Edict of Milan.
Edict of Milan
a document that said that Constantine approved of Christianity as one of the religions of the Roman Empire. Soon, Theodosius, the next emperor, would say that Christianity is the main religion of the Roman empire...
Constantinople (or Byzantium)
the result of the eastern Roman empire The empire that was still alive would soon end up becoming the start of the Byzantium empire. IT is the new capital of the Roman empire; renamed Constantinople. IT had high walls (good defense) + shifted central power to east. Good trading location too.
The Western empire crumbled due to internal problems, separation of the West from the wealthier East, and outside invasions. Mongol nomads from central Asia, the Huns, destroyed all in their path → thus Germanic people pushed into Roman land, as the Germanic tribes moved through Gaul/Spain/North Africa.
but could not take Constantinople, due to its walls. In 452 C.E., they moved into Rome (famine and disease, which attacked the Huns, kept Rome from being conquered), and Attila died in 453 C.E., so the Huns were no longer a threat, yet Germanic invasions continued.
The last Roman emperor
was Romulus Augustulus → until 476 C.E. → there were no more emperors, and power in the western half disappeared. The Eastern half flourished, preserving Greco Roman culture → emperors ruled from Constantinople, seeing themselves as heirs of Augustus.
Legacy of Rome-Language
Latin was the language of learning in the West, after Rome, and the language of the Roman Catholic Church. It developed into Romance languages (French, Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, and Romanian), and also influenced English.
Legacy of Rome-Architecture
the arch, the dome, and concrete were combined to build great structures, such as the Colosseum.
Legacy of Rome-Law
Rome's most lasting and widespread contribution. It strengthened citizen rights, applied equally to rich and poor, setting standards of justice (influenced by stoic philosophies/common sense/practical ideas). They were the basis of legal systems in Europe
It was a city, it was the birth town of Muhammad and a religious center for Islam
This is the movement in which Muhammad fled from Mecca along with his followers. He and his supporters left in 622 and traveled to Yathrib (over 200 miles to the north of Mecca). The city that he traveled to was then renamed Medina.
It is a place for kneeling. It was a temple or place of worship for the Muslims.
It is a title given to the successor of Muhammad. There were four caliphs in total. These four caliphs had once known Muhammad when he was alive. They used the Qur'an and Muhammad's actions to rule the Muslims.
The first caliph, Abu: Bakr
, encouraged the fact that the expansion of Islam was good and needed for two years. When Abu: Bakr died, all of Arabia was under the Muslims' control.
The next three caliphs, Umar, Uthman, and Ali
helped the Muslim state control 6000 miles from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River.
Shrine in mask, Big black stone, worshipped idols,
He was the creator of Islam.
It was the holy book of Islam.
It is one of the five pillars of Islam. This is the pilgrimage in which all Muslims must do. They have to travel to Mecca and pay their respects to Allah. They all have to wear identical clothing to show that they were all equal before his eyes.
a holy month in the Muslim calendar. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims must fast between dawn to sunset. A simple meal was eaten at the end of the day. Fasting reminded Muslims that their spiritual needs were more important than their physical needs.
Five Pillars of Islam
The Five Pillars of Islam were five duties that all Muslims have to carry out.
The first duty is faith. They have to believe that "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."
The second duty is prayer. Muslims have to face toward Mecca and pray five times a day.
The third duty is alms. All Muslims have to support the less fortunate/poor. They give alms, otherwise known as money for the poor, through a special religious tax. The fourth task is to fast during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.
The fifth duty is to complete the hajj.
After Ali, the last caliph, died in 661 AD, the Umayyads came to power. They moved the Muslim capital to Damascus to better control the conquered territories. Instead of living the simple life of the caliphs, they surrounded themselves with wealth ceremonies. These actions were similar to non: Muslim rulers. These actions spilt the Muslim community into three groups. Those groups were the Sunni, Shi'a, and the Sufi. The Umayyads fell because of increasing religious and political struggles within the empire.
They were the next rulers. They assassinated all of the Umayyads except one. Moved capital to Baghdad, harsh rulers
This group of Muslims did not oppose the Umayyads. They believed that all Muslim rulers were similar to the Sunna (best model for Muslims to properly live according to the Qur'an and Muhammad taught that his successors should be like it). Those rulers were "rightly guided."
This group was the first to oppose the Umayyads. They believed that Muhammad's descendants should rule the Muslim community. They did not get how a person could be like the Sunna.
This last group openly resisted the Umayyads and their luxurious and wealthy life. They chose to live a life a poverty and devoted themselves to a spiritual life/path.
a system of law combined from the teachings of Qur'an and Sunna. It regulates faily, community life of Muslims, moral conduct, and business.
House of Wisdom
It was the combination of a library, academy, and translation center. The library part held many documents/books and philosophical texts. In the translation center section, scholars would translate all those texts from various parts of the world (Greece, India, Persia, and more) into Arabic. It was created by the Caliph al: Ma 'mum in the early 800s.
Maimonides (Moses Ben Maimon)
he was a Jewish physician and philosopher who was born in Córdoba and lived in Egypt. He became known as the greatest Jewish philosopher who poruced a book called The Guide for the Perplexed. It blended philosophy, religion, and science.
Averroes (Ibn Rushd)
He was a Muslim philosopher. In 1100s, he was criticized for blending in Aristotle's and Plato's views with Islamic views. However, he argued back that the philosophies and Islamic beliefs all had the same goal which was to find the truth.
Chapter Eleven-byzantine, russian and turks
When he became the ruler of the Roman Empire, he moved the capital Constantinople. When the western half of the Roman Empire fell due to invading tribes and other things, the eastern half, which is mostly called the Byzantine Empire, survived.
Byzantine nobleman Justinian took over the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, succeeding his uncle. Justinian's best general, Belisarius, was sent to recover North Africa from Germanic tribes. He succeeded. He attacked Rome two years later, seizing it from Ostrogoths, through repeated attacks on Rome. Justinian's armies conquered Italy, and parts of Spain → "New Caesar." → Absolute power of state/church. Brutal politics in the Byzantine Empire → many emperors were assassinated/killed/had fled. Unified western and eastern Empire → legal experts to regulate society. Looked through all Roman laws, creating a uniform code → the Justinian Code. Consisted of four works: the Code, Digest, Institutes, and Novellae
a big, fancy church that Justinian built. It was one of his most ambitious building projects. It included various architectural items like Greek columns and Roman arches. Its name meant "holy wisdom" in Greek. This church was built based off a church that was destroyed during his reign in the Nika Rebellion.
the "Roman Catholic" Church in the eastern half of the Roman Empire which was called the Byzantine Empire. This church was led by the patriarch and fellow bishops. Its services were conducted in
or other local languages. The emperor of the Byzantine Empire was the ruler of the church. On the other hand, in the Roman Catholic Church, the pope has the highest authority. The services were always conducted in Latin.
religious images used to help Eastern Christians when devoting to their religion
to ban or evict that person from the Church
someone who believed in religious beliefs that was different from their own church. Eastern Orthodox Church = originally part of the Roman Catholic Church, beliefs still the same (based off of Jesus and the Bible), rejected certain points of views in the church. In a way, they are considered heretics in front of the Roman Catholic Church's eyes.
leading male in a family. In religion, the patriarch is the highest bishop in the church.
people who lived north of the Byzantine Empire. They lived in forests and were farmers and traders.
a city on the Dneiper River (one of the three greatest rivers in Russia's first unified territory). It was a point for Vikings to rest and then travel downward on the river to eventually the Black Sea. From the Black Sea, they could travel to Constantinople to trade for products from distant lands.
grandson of Princess Olga, a noble from Kiev who went to Constantinople and converted to Orthodox Christianity.
Yaroslav the Wise
Fought mongols, family, military
a Russian prince and considered a military hero. He told his fellow princes to cooperate with the Mongols that conquered early Russia. He and other Russian nobles crushed and defeated anybody who rebelled against the Mongols while collecting huge taxes to be used as payments to the Mongols.
it meant Caesar (Russian form of Caesar)
prince if Moscow; openly challenged Mongol rule and called himself the czar. He told everybody that he would Russia the "third Rome." In 1480 AD, he did pay his taxes. His army got ready to fight against the Mongol Army at one moment. But after a while, both armies left without fighting each other. This bloodless standoff showed the Russians that they were free to create a n empire for themselves and they were sort of freed from the Mongols.
one of the migrating Turkish groups that converted to Islam and moved toward the weakened Abbasid Empire. They soon became more powerful in strength and grew in number. They managed to capture Baghdad from the Persians in 1055 AD. In 1071 AD, they defeated Byzantine invaders and conquered most of Anatolia.
chapter twelve- Tang/SOng, Mongols, Japan & Korea
Pronounced 'Sway'. United northern and southern China once again. Restored a strong central government. The dynasty lasted from 581-618 only through two emperors. The Grand Canal was built during empire. The Great Wall was rebuilt. The endless labor of state projects turned the people against this dynasty. Although short-lived it built a strong foundation for the Tang dynasty.
Considered the golden age of Chinese civilization for nearly 300 years (607-907). China grew under the dynasty to include much of eastern Asia, as well as large parts of Central Asia. They expanded the network of roads and canals.
Tang dynasty civil service exam system
Revived and expanded the civil service examination system restoring China's system of scholar-officials. Education and printed materials became important to a larger part of Chinese society.
Second emperor of Tang dynasty (627-649). Murdered two brothers, thrust father aside to take throne. A Strong ruler- his personal name was Li Shimin; great general, war hero; expands China's borders; encourages trade; allows buddhism to spread; let christians and muslims practice.
A wife of Tang Taizong, when he died she became the new emperor's (Taizong' s son) chief wife (empress). At first she held the real power while weak emperors sat on the throne, finally, in 690, she assumed the title of emperor (only woman ever to do so in China) at age 65 and ruled till she was 80. A strong leader who continued the work begun by Taizong. Took over Korea.
Fall of the Tang dynasty
Rising costs of government caused the Tang rulers to impose crushing taxes which caused hardship to the people but failed to cover costs of military expansion and new building programs. Muslim armies defeated the Chinese at the Battle of Talas. As a result China lost Central Asia and entered a period of chaos and disorder. In 907 the Chinese rebels burned the Tang capital at Ch'ang-an and murdered the last Tang emperor, a child.
Pronounced 'sung'. , (960 - 1279 AD); this dynasty was started by Taizu and lasted about 3 centuries. After losing northern China and forced south China never regained the lost lands. China ruled a smaller empire - easier to control which helped China to stay stable, powerful, and prosperous. Population nearly doubled to 100 million with 10 cities of 1 million people each. Most populous country in the world and the most advanced.
Inventions of Tang and Song China
*Printing -Block printing : 700s and Movable Type: 1040 - most important
*Explosive Powder (gunpowder): fireworks and military - most important
*Advances in Agriculture - improved rice to enable 2 crops a year instead of 1
*Paper Money - replaced metal cash
*Magnetic compass - helped China become a sea power
*Porcelain China dishes
*Landscape black and white paintings
Tang and Song dynasty - Golden Age of Poetry and Art
Tang period produced great poetry and Song period produced new heights of Chinese painting beauty.
Tang dynasty poet who wrote about life's pleasures.
Tang dynasty poet who praised orderliness and Confucian virtues. Also wrote about war and the hardships of soldiers.
Song dynasty Chinese painting
Artist emphasized the beauty of natural landscapes and objects such as a single branch or flower. Didn't use bright colors, black ink was their favorite paint. "Black is ten colors" said one artist.
Blocks of individual characters in a frame to make up a page for printing. Previously, printers had carved the words of a whole page into one large block.
A class of powerful, well-to-do people. During Tang and Song times a new, much larger upper class emerged, made up of scholar-officials and their families. They attained their status through education and civil service positions rather than through land ownership
Levels of Chinese Society - Tang and Song times
3. Urban middle class - merchants, shipkeepers, skilled artisans, minor officials, and others
4. Bottom of urban society - laborers, soldiers and servants
5. lowest - peasants
Status of Women
Subservient to men. In upper classes in cities a woman's work was deemed less important to the family's prosperity and status.
But in peasant families women worked in the fields and helped produce their family's food and income.
Done to upper-class girls, when young their feet were bound tightly with cloth, which eventually broke the arch and curled all but the big toe under. Admiringly called a 'lily-foot'. Crippled for life, but reflected the wealth and prestige of her husband, who could afford such a beautiful but impractical wife.
Mongols of the Asian Steppe
Lived their lives on the move. They prided themselves on their skill on horseback, their discipline, their ruthlessness, and their courage in battle. They also wanted the wealth and glory that came with conquering mighty empires.
Asian Steppe - West and East
A vast belt of dry grassland which served as a land trade route connecting the East and West. Home to normadic peoples who frequently swept down on ther neighbors to plunder, loot and conquer.
This portion of the steppe was home to the Hittites, runs from Central Asia to Eastern Europe
Covers the area of present day Mongolia, first home of the Huns, Turks, and Mongols
Nomadic people who ranged over wide areas and kept herds of livestock on which they depended for food and other items. They followed a familiar seasonal pattern of movement to the same areas.
Steppe nomads who traveled together in kinship groups.
Mongol clan leader, Harsh ruler, harsh military tactics, religious, believed in elements
cruelty as a weapon
The largest unified land empire in history stretching from China to the Black Sea which was created by Genghis Khan and his successors.
By 1260 the Mongols divided their huge empire into 4 regions, or khanates. A descendant of Genghis ruled each khanate.
The Mongols as rulers
While ferocious in war, they were quite tolerant in peace. They rarely imposed their beliefs or way of life on those they conquered. Some Mongol rulers even adopted aspects of the culture of the people they ruled, even the religion.
The period from the mid-1200s to the mid-1300s, the Mongols imposed stability and law and order across much of Eurasia.. The Mongols guaranteed safe passage from one end of the empire to another. Trade, ideas, and inventions traveled across the empire and to other lands. Possibly the bubonic plague as well!
Mongolian emperor of China and grandson of Genghis Khan who completed his grandfather's conquest of China. He established the Yuan dynasty and united China for the first time in 300 years. He built a great capital on the site of modern Beijing. The fact that he moved his capital from Mongolia to China was a sign that he planned to make his mark as emperor of China.
Kublai Khan united China for the first time in 300 years. For this he is considered one of China's great emperors.
Mongol Rule in China
Outlawed intermarriage between Mongols and Chinese, forbade Chinese from learning Mongol language, brought foreign and Mongol government administrators into China and put them in charge, dismissed Confucian scholars, tolerated all cultural and religious traditions in China
Mongol Achievements in China
Kublai Khan restored the Grand Canal and extended it 135 miles north to Beijing. Built a paved highway along the Grand canal that ran 1.100 miles which ensured the north a steady supply of grain and other goods from the southern heartland.
Foreign Trade increased due to the Pax Mongolica (Mongol Peace)
Italian merchant and traveler who visited at Kublai Khan's court. He served the Great Khan well for 17 years by going to various Chinese cities on government missions. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
Weakness in Mongol Rule in China
Kublai Khan's heavy spending on fruitless wars, on public works, and on the luxury of the Yuan court burdened the treasury and created resentment among the overtaxed Chinese.
Yuan Dynasty overthrown
After Kublai Khan died in 1294 family members argued over who would rule. In 8 years there were 4 different Khans! Chinese resentment and Mongo humiliation of the Chinese increased. Years of famine, flood, disease, economic problems and official corruption caused rebellion. In 1368 Chinese rebels overthrew the Mongols and founded the Ming dynasty.
Decline of the Mongol Empire
By the time of the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, the entire Mongol Empire had disintegrated. Only the Golden Horde in Russia stayed in power and ruled Russia for 250 years.
isolated, similar to chinese culture
Geography of Japan
About 4000 islands make up the Japanese archipelago or island group which extends in an arc more than 1,200 miles long. Most Japanese people live on the 4 largest islands. It is so mountanious that only about 12 percent of the land is suitable for farming. Natural resources such as coal, oil and iron are in short supply. There are typhoons, earthquakes, and tidal waves.
Not a united country, hundreds of clans controlled their own territories. Each clan worshiped its own nature gods and goddesses. Thousands of local gods. Eventually combined to form Japan's earliest religion. Shinto meaning 'way of the gods.'
Based on respect for the forces of nature and on the worship of ancestors. Believed in kami-divine spirits that dwelled in nature. Any unusual or especially beautiful tree, rock, waterfall, or mountain was considered the home of a kami.
Clan that assumed control in the fifth century. They claimed to be descendents of the sun goddess Amaterasu. Eventually, in the seventh century, the claimed themselves as emperors of Japan. They were figure heads only and the power was controlled by various strong clans who ruled in the emperor's name. -borrowed heavily from Chinese during this time period
-used imperial and centralized government
-copied and adapted Chinese art, literature, and writing system
Buddhism in Japan
Brought over by Korean travelers who adopted it in China. In the mid-700s, the Japanese court officially accepted Buddhism. Eventually spread through Japanese society. However, it mixed with Shinto rituals, gods and goodesses.
Cultural borrowing from China
The Japanese adapted Chinese ways from the Tang dynasty to suit their own needs. They learned much but still retained their own traditions. Formed a strong central government but not civil-service system. Japan continued to be a country where a few great families held power. They copied and adapted Chinese art, literature, and writing system
Time Period in Japanese history known for a focus on etiquette and culture. The capital was in Heian. a highly refined court society rose in this time and there were lots of strict rules which dictated every aspect of court life. Everyone at court was expected to write poetry and to paint. The 'Tale of Genji' a long prose written by Lady Marasaki Shikibu was the world's first novel.
The code governing correct behavior and appearance.
Feudalism erodes Imperial Authority
The power of the central government began to slip. Large landowners living away from the capital set up private armies. The countryside became lawless and dangerous. For safety farmers and small landowners traded parts of their land to strong warlords in exchange for protection. This was the beginning of a feudal system like ancient China and medieval Europe.
Samurai means 'one who serves'. Loyal bodyguards for the warlords.
'The way of the warrior' Expected to show reckless courage, reverence for the gods, fairness, and generosity toward those weaker than himself. (Honor, bravery, loyalty) Dying an honorable death was judged more important than living a long life.
'Supreme general of the emperor's army' In effect, the shogun had the powers of a military dictator. The emperor gave the title to the winner of a 30 year war between 2 powerful clans to the Minamoto leader named Yoritomo in 1192.
The Kamakura Shogunate
Following tradition the emperor still reigned from Kyoto (rebuilt on the ruins of Heian, which had been destroyed in war.) However, the real center of power was at the shogun's military headquarters at Kamakura. The pattern of government in which shoguns ruled through puppet emperors lasted in Japan until 1868.
Karmakura shogunate decline
They were strong enough to turn back the two Kublai Khan naval invasions but it drained the treasury.
Southeast Asia and Korea
To the south of China is Myammar, Lao, Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore, Brunei and the Philippines. To China's northeast is the Korean peninsula which is currently divided into North and South Korea.
Influence of India and China in Southeast Asia
Indian merchant ships arrived by the first century A.D. Hindu and Buddhist missionaries spread their faiths, kingdoms arose and were modeled on Indian political ideas. Indian culture, languages art and religions are evident even today. Chinese ideas and culture spread through migration and trade. Chinese political influence either through direct rule or by demanding tribute from local rulers.
In what is now Cambodia, Improved rice cultivation. They built elaborate irrigation systems and waterways. These advances made it possible to grow 3 or 4 crops of rice a year instead of 1.
At their capital, Angkor, Khmer rulers built extensive city-and-temple complexes. Ankor Wat is one of the world's greatest architectural achievements. The complex, which covers nearly a square mile, was built as a symbolic mountain dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. The Khmer also used it as an observatory.
Dai Viet (Vietnam)
Was under Chinese domination for over 1000 years and so was least influenced by India. When the Tang dynasty weakened Vietnam managed to break away and became an independent kingdom, Known as Dai Viet, in 939.
Culture was shaped by Chinese influences but also maintained a distinct way of life. Clans or tribes controlled different parts of the country until the Chinese took over and established a military government for about 500 years. Until they were driven out by the Silla kingdom.
Dynasty established by Wang Kon that lasted four and a half centuries. The central government of this dynasty was modeled after China's. It also established a civil-service system--one which was slightly flawed because the sons of nobles were given the best positions despite examinations, and no upward mobility was possible. This period produced great cultural achievements for the Korean culture (art, blocks for printing Buddhist scriptures, etc.).
Chapter seventeen-Renaissance & Reformation
French term meaning rebirth
Francsico de Vitoria
Spaniard who helped establish modern international law
_______ painted Birth of Venus and Primivera
Italian architect best known for sculpture and metalworking
The book of the Courtier was written by ___________
Englishman who wrote Utopia
Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
Where the Northern Renaissance began
Pieter Bruegel the Elder
Flemish painter who painted Winter Landscape with Skaters and Bird Trap
Developments in ___________ paints revolutionized painting during the Renaissance
Everyday language used by almost all people in their daily lives
Designed the dome of St. Peter's Basilica in Rome
The Medici family came from _________________, Italy
____________ Medici was known as "The Magnificent"
Painted the Mona Lisa and the Last Supper
artist who developed the "perspective net"
________________ supports the arts financially
Renaissance author who wrote The Prince
___________ in art shows scenes and objects in realistic dimensions and proportions
Sculpted David and Pieta in marble
Medieval and Renaissance Italy were divided into numerous small ________________
included grammar, history, poetry and rhetoric
Birthplace of the European Renaissance
Renaissance began in the __________
Italian Humanist who formed a large classical library in the 1300s
Country where international trade remained strong throughout the Middle Ages
Developed the first printing press with movable type
German artist known as "Leonardo of the North" who revolutionized the art of engraving
Dutch priest who produced a new edition of the Bible in Greek
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who painted Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife
Painted The School of Athens
Consequence of the invention of the printing press with movable type
an ideal society
French author who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel
The Renaissance saw a renewal in ancient ______________ culture
Designed the Roman-inspired dome on a cathedral in Florence
Focused on studying classical Greco-Roman culture
Theater where Shakespeare's plays were produced located along the Thames
the selling or buying of positions within the (Roman Catholic)Church during the Middle Ages
relating to the style of church architecture developed in medieval Europe featuring ribbed vaults,stained-glass windows,flying buttresses, pointed arches, and tall spires.
in 1093 - called for the 1st Crusade to ride the Holy Land (modern day Israel) of the infidels (the Muslims Turks).
A "holy war" in which medieval Christian warriors sought to recover control of the Holy Land from the Muslims.
children brought to the holy land to conquer Jursulam
from death and disease
Richard the Lionhearted
also known as King Richard I of England; Was a noted warrior/Crusader who helped lead the 3rd Crusade and fought to a truce with the Muslim leader Saladin in 1192 at the Battle of Acre. On the return trip home; Richard was captured by his enemies and ultimately died
before he made it home to England.
Long effort by the Spanish to drive the Muslims (called Moors) out of Spain, lasting from 1192 until 1492.
A court held by the Church to stop heresy. Heretics were people whose religious beliefs differed from the teachings of the Church. A person suspected of heresy might be questioned for weeks and even tortured. Once the confessed, they were often burned at the stake.
Great Muslim ruler of Egypt and military leader who defeated the Christians and captured Jerusalem. He agreed to a truce (3rd Crusade) with Richard the Lion-Hearted of England that Jerusalem would remain under Muslim control and Saladin promised that unarmed Christian pilgrims couild freely visit the city's holy places.
Horses and Oxen
At first oxen were used (good: eat whatever, Bad:slow) Then horses came (Good: fast, powerful, Bad: Specific food). This led to the invention of saddle.
Two fields were planted and one lay fallow (resting) for a year. This replaced the 2 field system. Farmers could grow crops on 2/3 of their land each year, not just on half of it. As a result, food production increased. Everyone's health improved and the European population grew dramatically.
A medieval association of people in the same occupation or business working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members. The first guilds were merchant guilds. They banded together to control the number of goods being traded and to keep prices up.
Formed an important part of town life during the medieval period. They trained young people in a skilled job, regulated the quality of goods sold, and were major forces in community life.
A trainee in a particular trade; a long process that youngsters went through to obtain membership in a guild (around 7 or 8 yrs. of age). Parents paid for training, lived with a master and his family, couldn't marry.
A person who has learned the basics of a career as an apprentice but is still learning from masters and has not yet opened his own shop. Worked 6 days a week, needed to produce a masterpiece (his finest work) to become a master.
Owned his own shop, worked with other masters to protect their trade, sometimes served in civic government.
The expansion of trade and
business that transformed European economies during the16th and 17th centuries.
Letters of Credit
A letter issued by a bank allowing the bearer to withdraw a specific amount of money from the bank or its branches.
Medieval merchant-class town dwellers who resented interferences to their work such as fees, taxes, and rents. They demanded rights such as freedom from certain tolls and the right to govern their towns from feudal landlords.
Originally referred to a group of scholars meeting wherever they could. People, not buildings, made up the medieval university. Most students were the sons of burghers or well-to-do artisans.
The everyday language of your homeland.
In the mid-1200s, he argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument. His writing focused on questions of faith versus reason and logic. He wrote the Summa Theologicae his greatest work which was influenced by Aristotle. This great work combined ancient Greek thought with the Christian thought of his time.
Schoolmen - Thomas Aquinas and his fellow scholars who met at hte great universities were known as scholastics.
William the Conqueror
Duke of Normandy in France, led the Norman invasion of England and became the first Norman to be King of England. He defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings.
claimed land & divided it into fiefs for soldiers
He unified control of the lands and laid the foundation for centralized government in England.
English king (1154-1189) who married Eleanor of Aquitaine; marriage brought large territory in France called Aquitaine. He introduced use of jury in English courts.
The rulings of England's royal judges formed a unified body of law that became known as common law. (used today)
Means 'Great Charter". This document, signed by King John of England in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England. Guaranteed rights included no taxation withut representation, a jury trial and the protection of the law. These are now considered basic legal rights both in England and in the United States.
A self-governing town
Legislative group formed by King Edward I. An important step toward democratic government. Gradually it became strong and provided a check on royal power.
King of France who was a weak ruler (so was his son and grandson). Originally, he only controlled the area around Paris. During the centuries following, his descendents gradually spread their power outward from Paris. Eventually uniting France.
Called Philip Augustus from Latin word "majestic"; French King; king at age 15; added territories to the kingdom, tripling it in size.
Philip establishes this. It was like the Parliment and consisted of nobility, clergy, and townspeople to help with governing. First Estate ws the Church leaders, Second Estate were the great lords, and Third Estate was the commoners, wealthy landholdrs or merchants. This became the key in the beginnings of Democracy in France
a division in the medieval Roman Catholic Church, during which rival popes were established in Avignon, France and in Rome, Italy
This English reformer, he translated the Bible into Anglo-Saxon, and spread new, radical teachings such as that Jesus is the head of the church, clergy should not be wealthy landowners, and the Bible is the final authority for Christian life.
After the Great Schism, a professor in Bohemia (Czech Republic) taught that the Bible had higher authority than the pope, he was excommunicated and burned at the stake.
a deadly disease that spread across Asia & Europe in the mid-14th century, killing millions of people.
Joan of Arc
a French peasant girl who felt 'moved by God' to rescue France from its English conquerors - claimed that angels spoke to her to give her God's will and to drive the English out of France and to help crown its true king; Charles VII.
Hundred Years War
a conflict in which England & France battled on French soil off and on from 1337 to 1453.
Yin and Yang
his principle is that all things exist as inseparable and contradictory opposites, for example female-male, dark-light and old-young
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
chapter 13 and 14 middle ages
Middle Ages Study Guide
European Middle Ages Chapter 13 and 14 Test
Unit 5: The Middle Ages Study Guide
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
History Review by Chapter
Chapter 1 + 2
Chinese Flash Cards
World History Unit 2 Vocabulary
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Human Musculature and Strength/Condition…
A.P Environmental Science Unit 2 (Chapte…
First 18 presidents