1. Paleontology, reveal evidence from Fossil,found amount sediment layers
2. Biogeography ,exp. placental mammal and marsupial , reveal unrelated spices in different region look alike, when found in similar environment , strong effect of natural selection
3. Embryology ,similar stage of development(ontogeny)
4. Comparative anatomy ,describe two structure,Homologous , and analogous
5. Molecular biology ,examines nucleotide and amino acid sequences of DNA and protein
98% similarity in human and chimpanzees
through volcanoes,, CH4, NH3, CO, CO2, H2, N2, H2O, S, HCl, HCN, little/no O2). formation of organic soup from inorganic, energy from UV, lighting, heat, radiation => acetic acid, formaldehyde, and amino acids
- Oparin & Haldane: organic soup theory; if there was O2 (very reactive), no organic molecules would have formed. Operin's hypothesis was that origin Earth environment was reducing (providing chemical requirements to produce complex molecules from simple building blocks. In an oxidizing environment you'd break complex molecules apart).
- Stanley Miller: tested theory of above and produced organic molecules. Miller & Urey used ammonia, methane, water, and hydrogen sealed + simulated lightning --> saw several organic molecules, AA's, starting materials, but no NAs!