53 terms

Athenian Democracy

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Ancient
Something really, REALLY old (from over 2500 years ago).
City States
An independent area made up of a city and the surrounding countryside, that had its own government, army and laws.

These independent communities formed because of the rough and mountainous terrain of Greece that made communication hard.
Tyrant
Rulers who seize power and govern in a harsh, cruel way - they DEMAND obedience from the people.
Citizen
Children of parents who were born in Athens. Only male citizens could participate in voting and governing the city. A young man became a citizen after he finished his military service at age 20.
Metic
Residents of Athens who had been born OUTSIDE the city-state.
They were not allowed to own land.
Only rarely could they become citizens.
Slave
These people were owned either by private Athenians or by the city-state. Many slaves were people who had been taken prisoner when their city-state was attacked by the Athenians. They could not become citizens (only rarely).
What are the 3 groups in the ancient Athenian social structure?
Citizen
Metic
Slave
Epic
A long poem that tells a story about a legendary hero of the past.
What were the roles of boys/men in ancient Athenian society?
when they were born the family attached an olive branch to the door - a sign of victory.

they spent their early years with mom playing with rattles, tops, yo-yos.

at age 7 boys went to school to learn reading, writing, math, music, and literature.

they participated in sports such as running, boxing, wrestling, and javelin and discus throwing (this prepared them for service in the army which began at age 18).

At age 20 they took their place in society working, shopping at the agora, discussing politics, and voting.
What were the roles of girls/women in ancient Athenian society?
when they were born a piece of wool was attached to the door - indicating her future as a homemaker.

they spent their early years with mom playing with rattles, dolls, tops, hoops, swings and knucklebones.

girls were educated by their mothers (only a few could read and write)
learned household chores like spinning, weaving, and child care

they rarely went out in public and when they did, they needed an escort (either her father, brother or husband).

when a girl turned 15 her father CHOSE a husband for her.

she was not allowed to sell anything or give away anything.

females could not vote.
Direct Democracy
When people vote DIRECTLY to make decisions rather than having representatives. Everyone met in an area and everyone discussed issues together then voted on them.
Decree
A decision made by people who are in authority
What are the 3 "pillars" of Athenian democracy?
The assembly
The council of 500
The court
Lottery
A draw by chance from a large number of choices (like drawing names from a hat).
Tribe
In Athenian society, a political group.
Agenda
A list of topics that will be discussed at a meeting.
Magistrate
A government official who works for the court who were chosen by lottery for 1 year.
Defendant
the person who is accused of a crime in a court case.
Plaintiff
the person who brings a complaint about another person to court.
Was the Council of 500 a fair organization?
The Council of 500 was a fair organization because members could serve as Councillor only twice in their lifetime. This gave more people an opportunity to be involved. It also allowed points of view from different tribes equally.
Was the Assembly of Ancient Athens a Democratic organization?
The Assembly of Ancient Athens was a democratic organization because it allowed for all citisents to have a way on all issues if they wanted to. It met regularly to discuss and make laws.
In the Assembly, how could a law be passed?
In the Assembly, a law could be passed only if the majority (more than half) of the citizens supported it.
Who can be a Citizen?
Ancient Athens Citizens in Athens were men who were born in Athens to Athenian parents.

Citizens would have to meet the following requirements:
. had completed minitary service
. were at least 20 years of age
Therefore in Ancient Athens many people were excluded from citizenship.
Direct democracy is
a government system where the people are in charge without a representative.
Athenians system of government is a direct democracy because
ordinary citizens of Athens could participate fully in government.
An example showing Athenian direct democracy is
the Ecclesia (the Assembly of men) because all male citizens met about three times a month outside the city on Pnyx (open air auditorium) hill.
A problem the Athenians had with having all citizen participate in government would be that
not everyone is going to agree and it may turn chaotic.
Representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Monarchy
rule by a single person
Monarch
A ruler of a kingdom or empire
Aristocrat
A member of a rich and powerful family.
Oligarchy
A system of government in which a small group holds power
Oligarch
one of several people who rule a country or empire together, sharing the power
Tyranny
a ruler who has no lawful claim to rule, usually seizes power by force
Tyrant in ancient Greece,
a ruler who had seized power without legal right to it
Democracy
a form of government in which citizens govern themselves
Pericles
Prominent orator
Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Citizen
A person with certain rights and responsibilities in his or her country or community
How did men who were citizens participate in the democratic government in Athens.
They would take part in assembly, council of 500 and the court.
Did Athens have a representative government.
No since no party was elected. Instead it was direct democracy were they voted directly.
What happens to men who didn't attend the assembly.
They are marked with red paint and fined.
Scale
Shows distance on the map.
Compass rose.
Shows north,south,east and west.
1. The assembly
Only male citizens over 20
meetings happened about 40 times per year or every 8-10 days at the Pnyx
thousands of citizens would attend. For example to grant citizenship there would need to be at least 6000
members would make decisions on many issues (taxes, religion, war and peace, etc)
citizens could bring private matters before the assembly
every member of the assembly had an equal right to speak
voting was by show-of-hands or different-color stones in jugs
2. Council of 500
(known as boule)
only men over 30
full-time government of Athens
term was for 1 year
divided into 10 tribes of 50 members each
council positions were selected by lottery
citizens could only serve on the council twice
the chairman only had his position for 24 hours and was chosen by lottery.
they meet in the Bouleuterion and live in Tholos
there was always 50 councillors on duty for emergencies
3. The court
Resolved disputes and decided on punishments.
Magistrates were the officers of the court.
Defendant and plaintiff had to present their own cases (except from women who needed a man to represent them and rich people who could hire speech writers)
Held jury trials.
Jurors were male citizens over 30, chosen by lottery on day of the trial.
The jury had between 501 and 1500 people.
Inscriptions
Important sources of information that can last for a long time.
Agora
Market and meeting place shaped like a square.
Stoa
A building around the agora were men talk.
How to read a map
title - tells what the map is about
compass rose - shows N/S/E/W
legend - explains the meaning of colours, lines and symbols
scale - shows the real distance covered by the map
Fairness in Athenian Democracy
1) citizens were allowed to rule themselves
2) majority rule
3) all people in the same class (male citizens) had the same rights; women, metics and slaves did not vote
4) slavery was accepted
5) no individual/minority rights; the common good was most important
Primary sources:
Original things from the culture we study
1) writings (books, diaries, letters)
2) visual items (sculptures, paintings, photos)
3) objects (clothes, furniture, cooking implements, weapons)
4) structures (temples, homes, gov buildings)
Socrates
Great thinker
He thought lottery was not the best way to choose the best people to govern.
He had different ideas about religion.
Meletus brought him before the court, saying that he was corrupting the youth.
The court said he was guilty and imposed the death penalty by drinking conium.
His students asked him to leave and save himself but he chose to die.
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