Terms in this set (71)
Made a list of the 33 known elements.
Were organized in 4 main categories:
-- Gasses, metals, non-metals, and earths
John Newlands, 1864
-Noticed that the elements showed repeating properties when arranged by atomic mass.
-Every 8th element, patterns repeated. He named it the Law of Octaves.
Noticed there was a connection between atomic mass and chemical properties.
Predicted elements not yet discovered and left space for them.
Organized elements by increasing atomic number.
Similar chemical and physical properties.
The main group of elements. All of the group A elements.
Have a wide range of chemical and physical properties.
Shiny, solid at room temp, good conductors of heat and electricity. Malleable and Ductile.
beaten into sheets
drawn into wire
All elements to the _____ of the stairstep are metals.
Group 1A meatls.
They are very reactive and are usually found in compounds.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Located in group 2A. Also very reactive.
All of the "B" groups.
Metals in the middle of the table.
Inner transition Metals
Last two rows on table.
Each row has a name.
1st row of the inner transition metals`
2nd row inner transition metals.
Nonmetals are ______ of the stair step line.
are generally gasses or brittle, dull- looking solids.
Very reactive and often are part of compounds.
Outer shell is full-- they do not react with other elements.
have properties of metals and nonmetals.
On the stair step line.
number of valance electrons
Elements in same group have similar chemical and physical properties. b/c they have =_______________________
period on the table
The energy level of valence electrons indicates the_________________
There are 4 blocks on the table.
groups 1A and 2A.
Group 1A elements have a configuration ending in____
Group 2A elements have a configuration ending in____
p- block elements
electron con. ends on a p.
block spans 6 groups because p can hold 6 electrons
s and p blocks make up the ________
this consist of the transition metals.
Have e- con. ending in a d sub-level.
10 columns in this block, it holds 10 e-.
e- conf. ending with an f- sub-level.
Spans 14 columns
taking the distance between the nucleus of 2 like atoms.
Period Trends for Atomic Radius ______ across a period.
Period Trends for Atomic Radius caused by the increase in ____________ from the nucleus.
Period Trends for Atomic Radius: _________ stays the same: so the nucleus sucks in the outer electrons as you move ____.
Atomic radii ______________as you move down a group
electrons and energy levels
The nuclear charge increases, but so do the amount of ______________and _____________.
atom with a + or - charge.
loss of an e- makes it +.
Positive ions are smaller than the atoms they were.
A ______ of e- makes a negative ion. which makes them larger than the atoms they were before.
As you move across a period, ionic radius gets smaller.
Period Trend for Ionic Radius
ions increase in size as you move down a group.
Ionic Radius trend withing groups
________is needed to overcome the attraction between the positive nucleus and the negative electron.
Atoms with ________ionization are less likely to lose their electrons.
The _________ has a stronger hold on it's electrons.
low ionization energy
An atom with ________________ does not require a lot of energy to remove an atom's electron.
This atom has less of a hold on it's electrons.
1st electron removed. Furthest from nucleus, lowest energy to remove.
2nd electron removed. closer to nucleus, takes more energy to remove.
3rd electron removed. closest to nucleus, takes most energy.
as you move right ionization energy increases.
inversely related to atomic and ionic size.
Increase across a period
Period Trends for Ionization Energy:
Period Trends for Ionization Energy:
the smaller the atom. the closer the electrons are to the nucleus.
the larger the atom, the further the electrons are to the nucleus.
as you move down a group ionization energy decreases
Groups for ionization
indicates the ability of its atoms to attract electrons on a chemical bond.
Electronegativity trends are ______________as ionization energy.
Therefore, as you move across a __________electronegativity increases.
As you move down a group, electronegativity__________________
all elements want to be like noble gases
Hydrogen and oxygen
According to the periodic table, which two elements have an atomic mass less than twice their atomic number?
The energy sublevel being filled
Explain what determines the blocks in the periodic table.
Nonmetal, right of stairstep
Xenon, non-reactive gas, poor conductor of heat and electricity.
Metal, nonmetal, metalloid?
Where on table?
Because they have the same number of valence electrons
Explain why elements within the same group have similar chemical and physical properties.
The inner electrons are more closely bound to the nucleus.
Explain why it is harder to remove an inner shell electron than a valence electron from an atom.
No. This information doesn't tell you where it is specifically located on the table in reference to group and period trends.
Can you determine which of two unknown elements has the larger radius if the only information is that the atomic number of one element is 20 greater than the other?
Atomic radii increase down a group as electrons are added to higher energy levels.
Atomic radii decrease across a period as nuclear charge increases and energy level amounts remain the same.
Explain how the period and group trends in atomic radii are related to electron configuration
The energy needed to remove an electron from an atom.
What is ionization energy?
Each electron removed will be closer to the nucleus.
Explain why each successive ionization of an electron requires a greater amount of energy.
Group 8A because the electron configurations are the most stable.
Which group has the highest ionization energies?
Atoms gain, lose or share electron in whatever way that allows them to have eight valence electrons.
Explain the octet rule.