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Math Vocabulary
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Gravity
4th grade Common Core Math Vocabulary Source: Granite School District, Utah
Terms in this set (231)
acute angle
An angle with a measure less than 90°.
add
To combine, put together two or more quantities.
addend
Any number being added.
additive comparison
Problems that ask how much more (or less) one amount is than another.
algorithm
A step-by-step method for computing.
angle
Two rays that share an endpoint.
angle measure
The measure of the size of an angle. It tells how far one side is turned from the other side. A one degree angle turns through 1/360 of a full circle.
arc
Part of a circle between any two of its points.
area
The measure, in square units, of the inside of a plane figure.
area model
A model of multiplication that shows each place value product.
array
An arrangement of objects in equal rows.
Associative Property of Addition
Changing the grouping of three or more addends does not change the sum.
Associative Property of Multiplication
Changing the grouping of three or more factors does not change the product.
attribute
A characteristic of an object, such as color, shape, size, etc.
benchmark fraction
Fractions that are commonly used for estimation.
capacity
Capacity refers to the amount of liquid a container can hold.
centimeter (cm)
A metric unit of length equal to 0.01 of a meter.
circle
A plane figure with all points the same distance from a fixed point called a center.
classify
To sort into categories or to arrange into groups by attributes.
common denominator
For two or more fractions, a common denominator is a common
multiple of the denominators.
Commutative Property of Addition
Changing the order of the addends does not change the sum.
Commutative Property of Multiplication
Changing the order of the factors does not change the product.
compare
To decide if one number is greater than, less than, or equal to.
comparison bars
Used to represent larger and smaller amounts in a comparison situation. Can be used to represent all four operations. Different lengths of bars are drawn to represent each number.
compose
To put together components or basic elements.
composite number
A number greater than 0 that has more than two different factors.
congruent
Having exactly the same size and shape.
cup (c)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 cup = 8 fluid ounces.
customary system
A system of measurement used in the U.S. The system includes
units for measuring length, capacity, and weight.
data
A collection of information gathered for a purpose. Data may be in the form of either words or numbers.
decimal
A number with one or more digits to the right of a decimal point.
decimal fraction
A fractional number with a denominator of 10 or a power of 10. Usually written with a decimal point.
decimal notation
A number containing a decimal point.
decimal point
A dot (.) separating the whole number from the fraction in decimal notation.
decompose
To separate into components or basic elements.
degree (angle measure)
A unit for measuring angles. Based on dividing one complete circle into 360 equal parts.
denominator
The quantity below the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are in the whole.
digit
Any of the symbols 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.
difference
The amount that remains after one quantity is subtracted from another.
Distributive Property
When one of the factors of a product is a sum, multiplying each addend before adding does not change the product.
divide
To separate into equal groups and find the number in each group or the number of groups.
dividend
A number that is divided by another number.
divisor
The number by which another number is divided.
endpoint
A point at either end of a line segment, or a point at one end of a ray.
equal
Having the same value.
equation
A mathematical sentence with an equals sign. The amount on one side of the equals sign has the same value as the amount on the other side.
equivalent fractions
Fractions that have the same value.
estimate
To find a number close to an exact amount; an estimate tells about how much or about how many.
evaluate
To find the value of a mathematical expression.
expanded form
A way to write numbers that shows the place value of each digit.
expression
A mathematical phrase without an equal sign.
fact family
A group of related facts that use the same numbers.
Also called related facts.
factor
The whole numbers that are multiplied to get a product.
factor pairs
A set of two whole numbers when multiplied, will result in a given product.
foot (ft)
A customary unit of length.
1 foot = 12 inches.
formula
A rule that is written as an equation.
fracton
A way to describe a part of a whole or a part of a group by using equal parts.
function table
A table that lists pairs of numbers that follow a rule.
gallon (gal)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 gallon = 4 quarts.
gram (g)
The standard unit of mass in the metric system. 1,000 grams = 1 kilogram
greater than
Greater than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is larger than the second number.
hour (hr)
A unit of time.
1 hour = 60 minutes.
24 hours = 1 day.
hundredth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 100 equal parts.
hundredths
In the decimal numeration system, hundredths is the name of the next place to the right of tenths.
Identity Property of Addition
If you add zero to a number, the sum is the same as that number.
Identity Property of Multiplication
If you multiply a number by one, the product is the same as that number.
improper fraction
A term for a fraction whose numerator is greater than or equal to its denominator.
inch (in)
A customary unit of length.
12 inches = 1 foot.
intersecting lines
Lines that cross at a point.
inverse operations
Operations that undo each other.
kilogram (kg)
A metric unit of mass equal to 1000 grams.
kilometer (km)
A metric unit of length equal to 1000 meters.
length
How long something is. The distance from one point to another.
Length is measured in units such as inches, feet, centimeters, etc.
less than
Less than is used to compare two numbers when the first number is smaller than the second number.
like denominators
Denominators in two or more fractions that are the same.
line
A set of connected points continuing without end in both directions.
line of symmetry
A line that divides a figure into two congruent halves that are mirror images of each other.
line plot
A diagram showing frequency of data on a number line.
line segment
A part of a line with two endpoints.
line symmetric figures
Figures that can be folded in half and its two parts match exactly.
liter (L)
The basic unit of capacity in the metric system.
1 liter = 1,000 milliliters.
lowest terms
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it
is in lowest terms. (Also called simplest form.)
mass
The amount of matter in an object. Usually measured by comparing with an object of known mass. While gravity influences weight, it does not affect mass.
meter (m)
A standard unit of length in the metric system.
metric system
A system of measurement based on tens. The basic unit of capacity is the liter. The basic unit of length is the meter. The basic unit of mass is the gram.
mile
A customary unit of length.
1 mile = 5,280 feet
milliliter (mL)
A metric unit of capacity.
1,000 milliliters = 1 liter.
millimeter (mm)
A metric unit of length. 1,000 millimeters = 1 meter
minute (min)
One sixtieth of an hour or 60 seconds.
mixed number
A number that has a whole number (not 0) and a fraction.
multiple
A product of a given whole number and any other whole number.
multiplicative comparison
Compare by asking or telling how many times more one amount is as another. e.g. 4 times greater than.
multiply
The operation of repeated addition of the same number.
number line
A diagram that represents numbers as points on a line.
numerator
The number written above the line in a fraction. It tells how many equal parts are described in the fraction.
obtuse angle
An angle with a measure greater than 90º but less than 180º.
Order of Operations
A set of rules that tells the order in which to compute.
ounce (oz)
A customary unit of weight equal to one sixteenth of a pound. 16 ounces = 1 pound.
parallel lines
Lines that are always the same distance apart. They do not intersect.
parentheses
( )
Used in mathematics as grouping symbols for operations. When simplifying an expression, the operations within the parentheses are performed first.
pattern
A repeating or growing sequence or design. An ordered set of numbers or shapes arranged according to a rule.
perimeter
The distance around the outside of a figure.
period
In a large number, periods are groups of 3 digits separated by commas or by spaces.
perpendicular lines
Two intersecting lines that form right angles.
pint (pt)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 pint = 2 cups
place value
The value of the place of a digit in a number.
plane figure
A two-dimensional figure.
point
The exact location in space represented by a dot.
pound (lb)
A customary unit of weight.
1 pound = 16 ounces.
prime number
A whole number greater than 0 that has exactly two different factors, 1 and itself.
product
The answer to a multiplication problem.
protractor
A tool used to measure and draw angles.
quart (qt)
A customary unit of capacity.
1 quart = 2 pints
or
1 quart = 4 cups
quotient
The answer to a division problem.
range
The difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data.
ray
A part of a line that has one endpoint and goes on forever in one direction.
reasonableness
An answer that is based on good number sense.
related facts
Related addition and subtraction facts or related multiplication and division facts.
Also called fact family.
remainder
The amount left over when one number is divided by another.
right angle
An angle that measures exactly 90º.
right triangle
A triangle that has one 90º angle.
round a whole number
To find the nearest ten, hundred, thousand, (and so on).
second (sec)
(unit of time)
One sixtieth of a minute. There are 60 seconds in a minute.
sequence
A set of numbers arranged in a special order or pattern.
simplest form
When a fraction is expressed with the fewest possible pieces, it is in simplest form. (Also called lowest terms.)
simplify
To express a fraction in simplest form.
square unit
A unit, such as square centimeter or square inch, used to measure area.
standard form
A common or usual way of writing a number using digits.
subtract
An operation that gives the difference between two numbers. Subtraction can be used to compare two numbers, or to find out how much is left after some is taken away.
sum
The answer to an addition problem.
tenth
One of the equal parts when a whole is divided into 10 equal parts.
time interval
A duration of a segment of time.
two-dimensional
Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure.
unit fraction
A fraction that has 1 as its numerator.
unlike denominators
Denominators that are not equal.
variable
A letter or symbol that represents a number.
vertex
The point at which two line segments, lines, or rays meet to form an angle.
volume
The number of cubic units it takes to fill a figure.
weight
The measure of how heavy something is.
whole numbers
Whole numbers are zero and the counting numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and so on. If a number has a negative sign, a decimal point, or a part that's a fraction, it is not a whole number.
word form
A way of using words to write a number.
yard (yd)
A customary unit of length.
1 yard = 3 feet or 36 inches.
Zero Property of Multiplication
The product of any number and zero is zero.
quotient
The answer to a division problem?
addend
Numbers that are added together to make a sum are called?
difference
The answer to a subtraction problem is called?
numerator
The top number of a fraction is the _________.
denominator
The bottom number in a fraction is the _______.
law of equivalent fractions
You can multiply or divide the numerator and denominator by the same number without changing the fraction's value.
ratio
A comparison of 2 quantities is called a _______.
graphs
Number pictures are called?
circle graph/pie chart
What shows you the relationship of the parts of something to the whole
bar graph
This uses bars to show data
line graph
The graph that is good for showing changes over time is called a _________.
histogram
A graph that helps you see how spread out a group of numbers are is called a __________.
box/whisker plot
A simplified version of a histogram is a _________.
number line
A line with evenly spaced marks on it that represent numbers is called a ___________.
negative numbers
Numbers that are less than zero are called?
positive numbers
Numbers that are greater than zero are called?
origin
The intersection point is called?
x-axis
The horizontal number line is called?
y-axis
The vertical number line is called?
coordinate plane
The axises along with all the space around is called the ___________?
ordered pair
When the number for x is always first and the number for y is always second is called an ______?
coordinates
A pair of numbers used to determine the position of a point on a graph are __________?
equation
Two expressions that are equal to each other are called an __________.
inverse operations
Operations that undo each other are called _____?
inequality symbols
Greater than and less than symbols are called?
The Golden Rule of Algebra states that if you do something to one side of an equation, you have to do the same thing on the other side.
What does the Golden Rule of Algebra state?
Point
A dot. Named with capital letters. is a _______?
Line segment
Part of a line. Stops on both ends is a _______?
Endpoints
The two ends of a line segment, named with two different capital letters are called _______?
Angle
Formed when lines or segments cross, or intersect. The space in the middle is an ______?
Intersect
The technical word for what happens when lines cross is called?
Vertex
The point where lines cross is called a ______?
Right angle
An angle that makes an L-shape. (90 degrees) is a ______?
Acute angle
An angle smaller than a right angle is an _______?
Obtuse angle
An angle larger than a right angle is an _______?
Parallel lines
Lines that never intersect. "Side by side" are called ______?
Perpendicular lines
Lines that intersect to form right angles are called ______?
Triangle
A polygon that has three sides and three angles is called ______?
Scalene triangle
A triangle witch sides are lengths of all different sizes are called ______?
Isosceles triangle
A triangle with two equal sides is called an ______?
Equilateral triangle
A triangle that all three sides are equal is called an _____?
Polygon
A shape with straight sides that's closed all the way around is called ______?
Quadrilateral
A polygon with four sides is an ______?
Pentagon
A polygon with five sides is a ______?
Hexagon
A polygon with six sides is a ______?
Octagon
A polygon with eight sides is an ______?
Perimeter
The distance around a polygon is the _____?
Area
The space inside a polygon. Length X Width is called the _____?
Perimeter formula
The sum of the sides (add the lengths of all the sides) is called the _____?
Perimeter of a square
4 X length of the side is the ______?
Radius
Distance from center to edge is called the _____?
Diameter
Distance all the way across the circle to the center is the ______?
protractor
This is used to measure angles?
vertical angles
__________ are formed by 2 intersecting lines.
perpendicular lines
What is it called when 2 lines intersect to make right angles?
straight angles
Sides that make a straight line and meaures 180 degrees are called ______?
parallel lines
Lines that run side by side but do not intersect are called ______?
polygon
Closed shape with straight sides (example triangle) is a ______?
scalene triangle
A triangle where all 3 sides have a different length is called a _______?
isosceles triangle
A triangle with 2 equal sides is an _____?
equilateral triangle
A triangle with all 3 sides equal is called an _____?
acute triangle
Triangle where all 3 angles are less than 90 degrees is called an ______?
right triangle
A triangle with a right angle is called _____?
obtuse triangle
A triangle with one angle that is greater than 90 degrees is an _____?
quadrilateral
A polygon with 4 sides is called _____?
trapezoid
A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides is called a ______?
parallelogram
A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are both parallel and equal in length is called a ______?
rhombus
A parallelogram with four equal sides is a _____?
rectangle
A quadrilateral with four right angles is a ______?
square
A plane rectangle with four equal sides and four right angles is called a _____?
congruent figures
Figures that have the same size and shape are called _____?
similar figures
Figures that have the same shape but not necessarily the same size are _____?
perimeter
The distance around a figure; calculate by adding up all sides is called the _____?
area
The space inside a figure; calculate by multiplying length x width give you the _____?
area of parallelogram
Calculated by multiplying base x height gives you ______?
area of triangle
Calculate by multiplying 1/2 x base x height give you the ________?
circle
The set of all points in a plane that are the same distance from a given point called the center is called a _____?
radius
The distance from the center of a circle to a point on the circle is the _____?
diameter
The distance across a circle through its center is the _____?
chord
A segment between 2 points on a circle not running through the center is a _____?
circumference
The distance around a circle; calculated by 2 x π x radius is called the _____?
3.14
Pi is usually rounded off to _____?
cube
A three-dimensional shape with six square sides or faces that are the same size size is a _____?
rectangular prism
A solid (3-dimensional) rectangle which has six faces is called a _____?
sphere
A three-dimensional closed surface such that every point on the surface is equidistant from the center (3D circle) is called a _____?
pyramid
A solid which is flat on the bottom and pointed at the top is called a _____?
cylinder
A 3-dimensional figure that has 2 congruent circular faces (like a soup can) is called a _____?
volume
The amount of 3-dimensional space inside a geometric solid and is measured by cubic feet, cubic inches etc; calculated by length x width x height is called the _____?
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