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age 3+

Direct Service Model

one to one or small group

Indirect Service Model

teaching parents and teachers to scaffold children

Generalization in Classroom

more natural - least restrictive environment

Intensive services

provide 1 month of intensive services then take a week or two off, then repeat

Transitions between IFSP & IEP

have current/future teachers talk
involve parents
give recommendations

Tests for language comprehension & production



*many different items at each age level for "Auditory Comprehension" & "Expressive Communication"
*Identify colors of crayons
*point to "the white kitten that is sleeping"
*Names described object
*Answers questions logically
*Uses possessives


*Battery of tests
*Core Language - Receptive Language - Expressive Language - Language Content - Language Structure

Sentence Structure

comprehension of entire sentence - child is pointing not talking

Word Structure

*production of language
*child finishes sentence

Expressive Vocabulary

What is this?

Concepts & Following Directions

*point to the...

Word Classes - Receptive

*What goes together, and how?

Language Sample Types


During a language sample ask...

open ended questions!

Types of narratives

story from book/movie
personal story
wordless picture book

Scaffolding during reading

comment on child's interests
ask questions
respond to utterances by adding more information

print focused cues

"Show me how to hold the book so I can read"
"Do I read this way or that way?"
"Where is the last word on the page?

Print conventions

where is the front of this book?

Concept of word

show me just one word on this page

alphabetic knowledge

where is the letter B on this page?

Picture focus

*Character: "Who is that?"
*Perceptual: "what color is his hat?
*Action "What is the mom doing in this picture?"

Phonological Awareness

the awareness of sound structure of a language

Develop Rhyming Skills

*ask if 2 words rhyme
*make up rhyming words
*write word family stories

Develop Awareness of Syllables

tap or clap syllables

Develop Segmentation Skills

*show alphabet letter, find picture of words that start with target sound
*Do word pairs begin/end with the same sound?

Develop Phonetic Synthesis Skills

*use continuants for blending practice


vocabulary - word meaning

Type Token Ratio

# different words/total # words


quick measure of vocabulary comprehension

fast mapping

make connections between word & referent

Temporal relations

after, before, since, until

physical relations

hard/soft, big/little, tall/short -positive learned 1st

focused stimulation

repeating the word over & over again w/o asking the child to repeat it

word finding deficits

*oral recitation
*confrontation naming
*filling in blanks
*supplying synonyms, antonyms, etc.
*test taking

word finding deficits intervention

*elaboration, word retrieval, or BOTH
*setting-ind, small groups, classroom
*activities - storage & retrieval

confrontation naming

Useful for vocabulary measurement or determining if there is a word retrieval problem

storage elaboration

give rich definitions

3 parts of the TNL

*retell story
*sequence of pictures
*child makes up picture based on a story

Dynamic Testing: kids from different cultural backgrounds

teach, then test


unrelated statements about a central stimulus

Preschool Journaling Approach

children draw pictures, parent writes what the child says

Author's Chairs

child tells story, other children ask questions

Paley - links stories with play

capture kids' fantasy stories & transcribe them so the kids can reenact them at a later time

Good Conversationalist

+Assertive +Responsive


-Assertive + Responsive

Verbal Non-communicator

+Assertive -Responsive


-Assertive -Responsive

Assessing Syntax

Language Sample

Syntax Programs


Enhanced Milieu/Incidental Teaching

*know what type of sentence you want and wait for it
*have a hierarchy of of cues and prompts
*try not to go directly to immitation
*environmental sabotage



Targeted Recasting

focus on one target problem such as "is"


leaving out words "doggy run"

premise of recasting

saving cognitive resources

complex recasting

2+ changes to child's platform

Preschool Language curriculum components

*Focused contrasts
*Event casts
*Open questions
*Prompted Interactions
*Scripted Play


Language facilitation curriculum

Language Acquisition Preschool day

*children learn by doing, talking, & manipulating objects
*structure & freedom
*1/3 teacher directed 2/3 child directed

CloZe procedure

fill in the blank

Script Therapy

*repeat event several times
*rotate roles
*violate expected events in sequence and/or script

Script Therapy goals

*increasing number of communicative intents


Tutors & Tutees

McGregor Results

increased MLU for tutors & tutees


Script Therapy

Goldstien goal



Little Gary - joining group

Barrier Games

put a barrier between client & clinician so you have to follow directions

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