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Leblanc World Civilizations Finals Quizlet
Terms in this set (300)
Characteristics Of A Civilization
-Complex Institutions: government, religion, economy
-Specializations: artisans, scribes
-Advanced Technology: plow, melting metals for weapons
-Advanced Cities: population growing, centers for trade
When one person focused on a specific type of work:
A job that involves being very good at making goods by hand.
A job in which you write for a living.
-a person was employed to do this before printing was invented, a common thing scribes would do is copy documents.
A long lasting pattern of organization in a community.
To make a trade of goods or services without the use of money.
A system of writing with wedge-shaped symbols, invented by the Sumerians around 3000 B.C
A time in which people began using bronze instead of copper and stone to fashion tools and weapons.
A tiered pyramid-shaped structure that formed part of a Sumerian temple.
Ur: City-State at the center of Sumerian cities that was walled with a ziggurat in the middle
Sumer: Southern Mesopotamia, modern day Iraq.
A rich deposit of fertile black mud.
Irrigation: watering of land to make it ready for agriculture
Ditch: a ditch that artificially supplied water to an area of dry land.
Series of rulers from a single family.
Geography Of Greece, What Was Its Impact On The Civilization?
Greeks had easy access to the Mediterranean Sea, and became excellent sailors. Limitation of food and living space made the Greeks hungry for new land outside of Greece and with easy access to the sea their Navy did a lot of fighting.
Land Of Greece
Land with rocky land, high mountains, and deep valleys. Landforms served as barriers, made it hard for the greek people to connect with other people and civilizations. Good farmland only covered 1/4 of Greece, called Arable Land.
A large wave of people from Europe, India, and Southwest Asia. They were ruled by powerful warrior-kings. Borrowed Minoan writing and some religious beliefs, and became interested in trade.
Dorians(sea raiders) occupied land of the Myceneans, no written records exist from the period, called the Dark Age.
Storyteller from the dark ages who made up epics, long poems based on tales he heard. Epics are about heroes and their deeds. His two famous ones were The Iliad and The Odyssey.
Main Character=Odysseus who is a greek warrior, takes place after the trojan war and tells the tales of his journey back home.
Tells about the courage and noble actions by warriors in battle.
Stands for city-state.
Government ruled by a king or queen.
Government ruled by a small group of noble families.
A government ruled by a few powerful people.
Sparta Vs. Athens: Similarities
Both had assemblies, foreigners as a working class, slaves, and valued choral dance and music.
Sparta Vs. Athens: Differences
-Athens had a limited democracy, Sparta had a military oligarchy
-Athens was apart of the Delian League, Sparta was apart of the Peloponnesian League,
-Athens had the strongest navy, Sparta had the strongest Army, and valued athletics.
-Athens had democratic values, Sparta had Militaristic Values
-Athens limited women's roles in politics and gave education to men, Sparta gave freedom to most women, and educated girls.
A league formed by several greek city-states, goal at the beginning was to drive the Persian army out of Greece.
A form of democracy in which citizens rule directly and not through representatives, used in Athens.
Golden Age Of Greece:
This time was called golden because it was the time in which Athens experienced a growth in intellectual and artistic learning(drama, architecture, science, etc.).
Achievements Of Golden Age:
Led to many achievements in the future with the advances of many philosophers, Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato.
The Spartans and Athenians fought the Peloponnesian war which lasted twenty seven years. Sparta defeated Athens.
What Were The Two Things That Philosophers Based Their Thinking Off Of?
#1= The universe, home to land, sky, and sea was made for a reason and purposely has things the way they are.
#2=People can understand #1 by logic and reasoning.
Questioned the nature of the world and human belief,thought, and knowledge. Incorporated psychology, physics, and biology into his arguments. He provides the basis of scientific method used today.
Encouraged Greeks to go farther and question themselves and their moral character. Brought to trial, accused of "corrupting the youth of Athens" and died by drinking poison(hemlock). Question and answer method is called the Socratic Method.
Vision of a perfect society included a three class society, farmers&artisans, warriors, and the ruling class, which he wrote in his book called The Republic. Created the school called The Academy.
Lovers of wisdom.
Alexander The Great
Son of King Philip II, only 20 years old when he became king, enjoyed the teachings of Aristotle and learned everything Aristotle taught, loved the epics, kept a copy of The Iliad under his pillow. He was trained how to ride a horse and use weapons from a young age.
Alexander The Great Accomplishments
In 13 years conquered all of Egypt, Greece, the Persian empire, and dominantly ruled Southwest Asia.
The mix of Egyptian, Persian, Indian, And Greek cultures, came along after Alexander The Great died of illness.
Hellenistic Culture: Mathematics
Euclid=highly regarded mathematician who taught in Alexandria, wrote book called The Elements which contained 465 proofs.
Archimedes= accurately estimated the value of pie and explained the law of the lever.
Hellenistic Culture: Astronomy
Scientists could study planets and stars from laboratory in museum in Alexandria.
Aristarchus=predicted the sun was 300x larger than the earth, proposed that earth and planets revolve around the sun.
Ptolemy=misplaced sun at the middle of the solar system
Eratosthenes=director of Alexandrian library, famous mathematician, poet, astronomer, and historian.
Hellenistic Culture: Physics
Archimedes= invented the Archimedes screw which raised water and heavy things for you. Later the steam engine, force pump, and pneumatic machines were created off his ideas, Plutarch documented Archimedes work.
Hellenistic Culture: Philosophy
Zeno=created school called Stoicism, students proposed that people should live good lives in harmony with god and the laws he made. Human desires, power, and wealth were distractions.
Epicurus=epicureanism=only believed in five natural senses, and good came from no pain, main goal was to achieve harmony of body and mind. Epicurean=person devoted to pursuing human pleasures in life.
Hellenistic Culture: Sculptures
Colossus Of Rhodes was biggest statue which stood over one hundred feet tall, Nike was another statue made to commemorate greek naval victory. Moved away from serene faced sculptures.
City created in Egypt by Alexander The Great(named after himself). Foremost center of commerce of hellenistic culture. Strategic site on the western edge of nile delta. Rich mixture of customs (Egypt and Agean Sea). Held half of a million people. Held Alexander's tomb. Held stone lighthouse called The Pharos. Held Alexandrian library which held .5 million papyrus scrolls and a place for scholars to study and create literature. Egypt was on the nile delta.
The people had the power to vote and choose leaders. Patricians and Plebians fought for power.
Aristocratic landowners who held most of the power in Rome, they could vote, and hold government office.
Common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population. They had the right to vote but not hold important government decisions. Over time the Plebians got the right to form a assembly.
Elected officials who represented roman Plebians from unfair acts of patrician officials.
In place of a king Rome had two officials who commanded the army and directed the government. They served for one year and could not serve again for ten years. One consul could override the decision of the other, that's why there were two of them.
In times of crisis, the republic could appoint a leader who had absolute power to make laws and command the army. Could not serve longer than six months.
Made up of three hundred members chosen from the upper class of roman society, who served in the senate for life. They control foreign and domestic policies and advise the consuls.
Laws made by ten officials written down/carved on twelve tablets/tables. The tables established the idea that all free citizens had a right to the protection of the law.
A form of government in which the people pick the leaders who represent them in the making of laws and running the government.
The god that created Islam.
He taught that there was only one god-Allah. At age 40 he took religion as his life mission and became a prophet. He was told by the angel Gabriel to speak the word of God to his people. Last prophet, greatest prophet.
A religion based on Allah's teachings. The submission (obedience) of the will of Allah.
Followers of the teachings of Allah. One who has submitted.
The First Pillar
A muslim must state the belief that there is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is the messenger of Allah.
The Second Pillar
A muslim must pray to Allah facing Mecca five times a day. This may be done at a mosque.
The Third Pillar
A muslim must give alms, or money for the poor through a tax. Usually 10% of income. Rule only applies if you have enough money to do so.
A muslim must fast during the month of Ramadan. Muslims eat only one meal a day, after sunset every day during this month.
A muslim should perform the hajj at least once in his or her life.
A trip to the holy city of Mecca.
The Five Pillars
The five pillars are used to "hold up your faith". If all the duties are completed they show a person's acceptance of the will of Allah. The duties involve faith, prayer, fasting, alms, and pilgrimage.
When the followers of Muhammad and Muhammad were forced to leave Mecca for Yathrib (later called Medina) in 622 because Meccans feared Muslims would neglect traditional Arab gods. Turning point for Muhammad. Marks year on the Islamic calendar.
Before the name Medina it was called Yathrib and it was the place where Muhammad and his followers went after being forced to leave Mecca.
Qu'ran or Koran
The holy book in which the central ideas of Islam are found in. Muslims believe this book states the will of Allah as revealed to Muhammad.
Islamic house of worship.
Belief in more than one god.
Belief in one god.
A political unit in which a number of peoples or countries are controlled by one ruler.
Ruled the babylonians from 1792-1750 B.C, reign came to an end when they were conquered by their neighbors the Kassites.
282 Specific Laws created by Hammurabi, through this process he was guided by Shamash. Set different codes for rich and poor and men and women.
A ruler in ancient Egypt.
A government in which religion and government are blended together.
Pyramids were built to please the pharaohs, and the pyramids showed economic strength for the Egyptians.
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds.
Longest river in the world located in northern Africa, flows north from upper to lower Egypt in Africa.
A tall reed that grows in the nile delta, used by ancient Egyptians to make paper like material for writing on.
First five books of the hebrew bible, most sacred writings in their tradition.
"Father of the hebrew people", formed first mutual covenant with yahweh, originally from ur but moved to canaan and then to Egypt because Yahweh told him to.
A mutual promise especially between god and the hebrews.
Dropped by the banks of the nile, adopted by Egyptian princess, led jews out of slavery, climbed to mount sinai to pray brought down two stone tablets which became the 10 commandments.
A payment made by a weaker power to a stronger power to prevent war.
A period in ancient Egyptian history that followed the overthrow of the Hyskos rulers lasting from 1570-1075 B.C.
-A woman; declared pharaoh at 1472 B.C.
-dismissed war and encouraged trade.
One of the earliest civilizations of ancient northeastern Africa, modern day northern Sudan, and southern Egypt.
Egyptian Pharaoh made a peace treaty in 1285 B.C with the Hitties in order to stop war. At war with Hitties because Egyptians took over parts of their land in present day Syria.
Major Mesopotamian empire, laid to the east of ancient Palestine, brutal in wars.
Came from northern Mesopotamia, ruled lands from fertile crescent to Egypt, governed land closest to Assyria as provinces and made them dependent territories, used nice equipment when in battle.
Conquered Assyrians and Babylonians, let all the jews who were exiled go back home and rebuild the Temple of solomon along with the wall in jerusalem under the power of Cyrus.
Later Persians were taken over by the greeks and then the romans.
Size of empire : modern day Afghanistan, Egypt, and Anatolia: over 2500 square miles, original homeland= modern day Iran, wealth of minerals, and each Persian had to pay taxes and obedience money.
Tolerant towards conquered people, honored local customs and gods, let conquered people enjoy remarkable freedom.
Expanded Persian empire, created 20 provinces created royal road, and brought peace back.
A local leader/governor= satrap, 20 satraps in ancient persia
The wars between Rome and Carthage.
1st war=control of Sicily and the western Mediterranean, Romans won
2nd War= Carthagians were stopped but killed many Romans and was declared a victory on their side at Cannae.
3rd War=Romans set Carthage on fire and sold it into slavery, Carthage became a Roman province.
Brilliant military strategist, was from Carthage.
-Led his troops with elephants around the mediterranean to put a surprise attack on the Romans.
Roman military leader, genius military strategist,. Defied the senate's orders and defeated Pompey in mostly all of his territories and was named Dictator for life. He created many jobs and started colonies. Nobles and senators feared Julius Ceasar's growing power, senators planned a assassination and stabbed Ceasar to death.
A group of three leaders.
Julius Ceasar, Pompey(popular general), and Crassus(rich roman.) Pompey soon became Julius's political rival.
Octavion(Ceasar's nephew and adopted son), Experienced general(Mark Antony), and a powerful politician(Lepidus). Ended in violence and jealousy with Mark Antony and Octavion (octavion forced Lepidus to retire). Mark Antony fell in love with Cleopatra and after he was defeated at the battle of Actium, they both committed suicide.
Later changed his name to Augustus or "exhalted one" and kept the name of supreme military commander. Lead Rome to its peak of its power.
Roman peace period under the power of Augustus.
Extended their land boundaries, strengthened their government, and advances in agriculture and trade happened.
Jesus Of Nazareth Or Jesus Christ
A jew born in the town of Bethlehem in Judea. Jesus said you should love god, their neighbors, their enemies, and themselves.
Formation Of Christianity
Jesus taught many things from Jewish Tradition and was said to have repeatedly performed miracles. Jesus began to start having many followers. Because of his popularity Roman and Jewish leaders feared that they would take away his popularity. Jesus was crucified by Pilate and sent to Heaven.
How Did The Pax Romana Help The Spread Of Christianity?
The Pax Romana provided a safe way to travel and a safe way to exchange ideas for christianity to spread(cultural diffusion).
How Did Roman Emperors Help The Spread Of Christianity?
Emperor Constantine: prayed for divine help before a battle and saw a cross in the sky and he then won his battle, he then made christianity legal in the Roman Empire.
Emperor Theodosius: Made christianity the Empire's official religion in 380.
Was Jesus The Messiah?
Jews denied that Jesus was the messiah and followers of Jesus thought he was..... form of christianity.
An ancient roman city which was buried in volcanic ash by a tremendous eruption of Mount Vesuvius. Much of what we know about roman homes was figured out by archaeological excavations of these cities. Of the 10,000 to 20,000 who lived in Pompeii only 2,000 have been uncovered. About three-fourths of the city has been excavated.
Internal Problems Of Rome
Sea raiders invaded some land on the mediterranean which disrupted trade, lead to inflation, gold and silver drain, decline and loyalty and military discipline, citizen indifference and loss of patriotism.
Strong-willed army leader which did not give personal freedoms to citizens. Set fixed prices for goods and divided the empire into east(Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt, had all the great cities and centers for trade, much wealthier than the west) and west(Italy, Gaul, Britian, France) and hired a co-ruler to help rule the west, ordered farmers to remain on land and workers had to stay in their jobs for life, and claimed descent from roman gods.
Restored the idea of a single ruler, moved the capital from Rome to Byzantium strategically(on the Bosporus Straight which was a great center for trade and defense purposes). Capital stood protected by massive walls and filled with imperial buildings modeled of Rome's. Byzantium=greek city
External Problems Of The Roman Empire
Alaric took over rome with his army called the Vigsoths, and Attila terrorized both halves of the empire with his army the Huns. Attila led his troops into a successful battle in the east but not taking over Constantinople. Wanted to take over the west but famine and disease kept him from doing so.
Leader of the Vigsoths.
Leader of the Huns.
The mixing of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures, sometimes referred to the Classical culture.
Bas-Relief Or Low-Relief
Images on a flat background, told stories to represent crowds of people, soldiers in battle, and landscaping.
Roman poet who modeled the Epics of Homer to write his own own story called the Aenid.
Roman historian who used facts to write his stories. Probably more accurate than Livy who wrote stories using legends.
Latin was the roman language, adapted by French, Portuguese, Spanish, Italian, and Romanian peoples. These languages were called Romance languages; based off the romans. Language of the catholic church, Latin was used for educational and religious purposes.(bible was written in latin and school was taught in latin).
Invented by roman engineers, used to bring water back into cities and towns by getting the water from the mountains. When the water channel spanned a river or ravine, the aqueduct was lifted high up on the arches.
Roman System Of Law
Most lasting and widespread contribution, as the empire grew romans thought that the laws should be applied to all people rich and poor. STANDARDS:
-all persons had the rights to equal treatment under the law.
-a person was considered innocent unless proven guilty.
-the burden of proof with the accuser rather than the accused
-A person should be punished only for actions not thoughts.
-any law that seemed unreasonable or grossly unfair could be set aside.
After Muhammad died people elected a new leader, Abu-Bakr. He had been loyal to Muhammad. He was given the title Caliph. A successor~ someone who comes after and takes the place of someone else and deputy means an assistant that acts as a leader on behalf of a leader who is absent. A Caliph is a "successor or deputy".
Dynasty which took power after the murder of Ali. They surrounded themselves with wealth and created a split in the Muslim community. Moved capital from Mecca to Damascus.
People who did not agree with the rule of the Umayyads. They thought that the caliphs need to be relatives of Muhammad.
Muslims who did not openly resist Umayyad rule. Among them were many Muslims who felt that the Umayyads had lost touch with the religion.
Muslims who reacted to the Umayyad rule by emphasizing a more spiritual way of life. They helped keep Muslims focused on the Qur'an and tradition.
Dynasty who took power and murdered all of the Umayyad Family. Built Baghdad. They used their location to control the rich trade between China and Europe.
Four Rightly Guided Caliphs
1st: Abu Bakr ~ 2nd: Umar ~ 3rd: Uthman ~ 4th: Ali
How did the Ottomans act towards their conquered people?
Wisely, they ruled through local officials appointed by the sultan and often improved the lives of the peasants. Most Muslims had to serve in the army and make contributions by their faith, Non-Muslims did not have to serve in the army but had to pay a small tax for their exemption.
Home to the Ka'aba, where Muhammad was born and where the Angel Gabriel told him he needs to preach the words of his god.
On the west bank of the Tigris River, designed like an onion(3 protective walls), palace of stone and marble was in the middle with the grand mosque. Population reached about one million at its peak. Leading city for the Abbasid dynasty.
House Of Wisdom
A combination of a library, academy/school, and translation center. Scholars of different cultures and beliefs worked side by side translating texts from rome, Greece, india, Persia, and elsewhere into Arabia. They translated texts into Arabic.
Comes from the latin word "al-jabr" meaning "thing" or "unknown" for the x-value. Algebra allowed people to multiply and divide easily and check their work. Created by Al-Khwarzimi.
Scientific Method (Muslims)
Muslims translated and studied greek texts but used a different way of solving problems; they solved by conducting experiments in laboratory settings.
Alhazen- mathematician who created a book called optics which revolutionized ideas about vision.
What Anatolian Turks saw themselves as, warriors for Islam.
Timur The Lame
Known to Europeans as Tamerlane, he was a rebellious warrior and conqueror of Samarkand who burned Baghdad to the ground. He crushed the Ottoman forces at the battle of Ankara in 1402. The defeat Halted the expansion of the Ottoman Empire.
Timur The Lame #2
After defeating the Ottomans at the Battle Of Ankara he turned his attention to China and war broke out between the four sons of the Ottoman Sultan.
Murad's son, called by Mehmed The Conqueror achieved the most dramatic defeat in Ottoman History, he took power in 1451. In 1453 at the age of 21 he conquered Constantinople and opened it up to people of all religions. Constantinople is now called Istanbul. Turned the Hagia Sophia into a mosque.
Suleyman The Lawgiver
Selim's son, lead the Ottoman Empire to it peak size and grandeur. His own people called him Suleyman The Lawgiver but in the west he was known as Suleyman The Magnificent.
Suleyman the Lawgiver Accomplishments
He was a terrific military leader, In 1521 he conquered Belgrade, In 1522 they captured the island of Rhodes on the Mediterranean Sea and had dominated the whole eastern Mediterranean. They captured Tripoli, on the coast of North Africa. In 1526 they advanced into Hungary, Austria. He began to wage war with central Europeans, Asians and North Africans. He became the most powerful Monarch on earth.
Suleyman The Lawgiver Accomplishments #2
He binded the Ottoman Empire together in a workable social structure. He created a law code to handle criminal and civil actions. He also simplified and limited taxes and systematized and reduced government bureaucracy.
The Devshrime System
The Sultan's army drafted boys from the peoples of conquered Christian territories. The army educated them, converted them to Islam, and trained them as soldiers. Soldiers called Janissaries.
An elite force of 30,000 soldiers trained to be loyal to the Sultan Only (suleyman). Their superb discipline led to them to the heart of the Ottoman war machine. Christian families sometimes bribed officials to take their children in because the brightest ones could rise to high government posts or military positions.
Fall Of The Ottoman Empire
Suleyman killed his ablest son and sent another into exile, but his third son Selim II inherited the power.
Pattern That Suleyman Set
Every time a new sultan came into power they had to strangle their brothers. The sultan would then keep his sons prisoner in the harem cutting them off from education and contact with the world. This practice produced a long line of weak sultans who eventually lead to the decline for the Ottoman Empire.
Who was Osman?
He was the most successful Ghazi, people in the west called him Othman and named his followers Ottomans.
What Did Osman Do?
He built a small muslim state in Anatolia between 1300 and 1326.
What Influenced The Performance Of The Ottomans Most?
The use of gunpowder, they were the first to use cannons as weapons of attack, they replaced their cavalry with foot soldiers.
Born in Moesia (modern day Serbia) successfully defeated three other generals to be named the Emperor Of Rome.
What Did Constantine Do?
Gave christianity legal standing within the empire, and in 330 CE, he moved the imperial capital from Rome to Byzantium, a small seaside trade town in modern-day Turkey.
Why Did Constantine Move The Imperial Capital?
To pay closer attention to challenges from Persia and the Germanic tribes along the Danube River, and he wanted to be nearer to the spiritual and cultural richness of cities like Jerusalem, Nicomedia, and ancient Troy.
Home to 50,000 people, held the Hagia Sophia, and was lavishly built by Constantine. Was the holy city of the Eastern Roman Empire until its capture by the turks in 1453.
Eastern Orthodox Church
Split from the Western Roman Catholic Church because they disagreed on whether or not a priest could get married or not (Eastern said yes), and the refusal from Constantine to accept the title of Pope.
The bishop of Constantinople.
Ruler of the Byzantine Empire from 527 to 565 CE.
4,652 Laws put into fifty books hand written by ten experts appointed by Justinian. All of these laws were put together into one text called The Institutes. These laws covered everything from property rights to religious crimes(heresy).
Why Was Justinian's Code Made?
Laws of the crumbled western roman empire were disorganized and sometimes contradicted, lawyers often took advantage of the confusion and Justinian knew that a clear and legal code was necessary for a unified empire.
Downfall Of Rome (Causes)
Disruption Of Trade- merchants faced invasions from land and sea which caused business's to collapse, destroyed europe's cities which made money scarce.
Downfall Of Cities- cities were abandoned and left as centers of administration.
Population Shifts- Nobles began to retreat to rural areas because government was collapsing in cities, people began to grow their own food which caused western Europe to become mostly rural.
Germanic Tribes- Loss of a common language, education, and government.
Religious communities (made by the church). Guidelines for Monks & Nuns became the same for other religions in Western Europe. Devoted their time to prayer & good works. Gave up all personal possessions and copied the bible, opened schools, and maintained libraries.
People who often risked their lives to bring new religion to other lands. Worked among the Germanic and Celtic groups that bordered the Roman Empire. Religious travelers to advance their beliefs, happened in the 4th and 5th centuries.
Frankish ruler that was the second son of Pepin The Short, was not short like his father, took over after Pepin's death and the death of his older brother, Carloman. Every summer Charlemagne would attack his enemies that surrounded the kingdom (muslim and germanic tribes) and spread christianity "by the sword" which means violently through war and returned western Europe for the first time since Rome.
In 800 Charlemagne crushed a mob threatening Rome, and in exchange the Pope made him Holy Roman Emperor (an emperor governs more than a king does). His government limited power of the nobles and he regularly visited every part of his kingdom. He encouraged learning by opening many schools and encouraged copies of the Bible to be made.
Lothar, Charles The Bald, and Louis The German, all weak ineffective frankish rulers who fought with one another in civil wars and allowed the Carolignian dynasty to fall apart.
Pope Gregory The Great (I)
Used church revenues to raise armies, repair roads, and help the poor. Strengthened Christendom which led to a vision of a churchly kingdom. The idea of a kingdom ruled by a pope would be a central theme of the middle ages. Pope Gregory negotiated peace treaties with invaders, he was involved in politics, and he made the church blend religion & politics. (Examples of how Gregory The Great was secular).
Your worldly lord was the person who was ranked just above you, nobles and bishops were a knight's lords and a knight was a noble's & bishop's vassal.
A peasant legally bound to live on a lord's property/land. The products produced by a serf went to their lord and then to the king. Serfs could not lawfully leave the place they were born, serfs were not slaves. Serfs owed the lord a few day's labor and a portion of their grain.
Mutual Obligation Of The Feudal System
In exchange for protection and other services a landowner (lord) granted a Fief. The person receiving the Fief is called a vassal, Feudalism depended on the control of land. Charles The Simple & Rollo showed how this two-sided bargain worked.
Order Of People In Feudal Society (Government)
The King >> Nobles And Bishops (The Most Powerful Vassals) >> Knights >> Landless Peasants (Also Vassals).
Religious Pyramid (Catholic Church)
Popes >> Bishops >>> Priests
The system of landowning & governing that emerged in Europe during the middle ages (political).
Manor System Or Manorilism
Rested on a set of rights and obligations between a lord and his serf. The lord provided the serfs with housing, farmland, and protection from bandits. In return, serfs tended the lord's land, cared for his animals, and performed other tasks to maintain the estate (economic).
A lord's estate.
Role Of The Catholic Church In Everyday Life
Churches provided sacraments, and sacraments provided heaven. Sacraments given by clergy or Christian religious officials. Also provided a unifying system that applied to all medieval Christians. Provided a religious and social center.
An area of land or property granted to a vassal by a lord.
A family's payment of one-tenth of its income to a church.
A code of behavior for knights in medieval Europe, stressing ideals such as courage, loyalty, and devotion.
Code Of Chivalry
A set of complex ideals, demanded that a knight acts bravely in defense of three masters (earthly feudal lord, his heavenly Lord, and his chosen lady). He also protected the weak & poor with the ideals of loyalty, bravery, and corteous.
Important religious ceremonies, the church provided a path to salvation which could not be done without the Sacraments.
Many sacraments and religious services that could not be performed in a king's land because one person on your manor was excommunicated. The king's subjects would then be doomed to eternal suffering in hell without the daily sacraments.
Banishment from the catholic church. People who were excommunicated would be denied salvation and all the person's vassals would be freed from their duties to him.
The law of the church. People who violated canon law were severely punished by the church.
The appointment of religious officials by kings or nobles, like bishops.
Emperor Henry IV
From Germany, and called a meeting of German bishops appointed by him, and with their approval, Henry called for Pope Gregory VII to resign from the papacy. Henry's bishops and other nobles sided with the Pope. Once he got the Pope's forgiveness he went back to Germany to punish the rebellious bishops.
Pope Gregory VII
Banned lay investiture, and excommunicated Henry IV. Made Henry IV wait and beg outside his castle in the snow with bare feet and without any warm clothes begging for forgiveness.
Thrusted upwards as if reaching towards heaven, light streamed in from the huge stained glass windows (windows told a story), included sculptures, and wood-carvings. The elements of the church were meant to inspire the worshipper with the magnificence of God.
Braces on the outside of gothic churches or cathedrals which held the churches up.
Look like flowers and made beautiful colors when sunlight streamed in.
Round arches, and a heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars. The thick walls had tiny windows that let light in.
The First Crusade
Started (hidden agenda of Pope Urban II) to finally end the Great Schism on Rome's terms, and to rescue the Byzantines from a grave threat (by the moslem turks) and thereby making the Byzantines in debt to Rome. Ended with the Christian crusaders retaking Nicaea and Jerusalem. Halted the expansion of the Moslems and provided a promising basis for future offensives.
The Second Crusade
Christian crusaders attacked a muslim caravan w/ Saladin's sister in it. The Muslims(turks) won the second crusade.
The Third Crusade
Crusaders won, they got a port city of Acre along with several other ports, and secured treaty rights which allowed Christian pilgrims to resume their visits to the holy land.
The Fourth Crusade
Constantinople was sacked and it distanced Rome-Byzantine relationships for a long time, the first time a Pope & a greek orthodox patriarch met in person was in the 1960's.
The Fifth Crusade
Strategy here was to capture the port city of Damietta at the mouth of the Nile, bottle up Egypt's commerce, and swap the port for Jerusalem. Natural disasters kicked in here and the crusaders were flooded by the annual Nile flood.
The Sixth Crusade
Ended peacefully with a treaty, Europe's reaction was not as expected and they condemned Frederick II for negotiating rather than fighting to end a crusade.
The Seventh Crusade
Almost an exact replay of the Fifth Crusade.
The Eigth Crusade
The 8th crusade went out in a whimper and the first crusade went out with a bang.
To cut your land into three pieces, plant on two-thirds of the land and leave the other third unplanted. Old way was a Two-Field System. Increased food supply came from this and horses pulled plows (got 2x the work done than Oxens did), and the climate was becoming warmer.
Groups of workers who did the same job, set standards for goods, and they made rules for young people learning the craft. Erased competition and is very similar to a modern day union.
A document guaranteeing basic political rights in England, drawn up by nobles and approved by King John. Put limits on the power of the king and protected the power of nobles only. Happened in 1215.
The meeting that called representatives from all parts of England to approve Edward's I tax plan in 1295.
In 1302 , Philip IV called for a meeting called for a meeting of representatives, like Edward I in England, Philip invited common people. This meeting was called the Estates General, the french version of parliament.
The Great Schism
The split in the church in Avignon (France) and the church in Rome (Italy). The split happened because there were two people named Pope, Pope Urban VI > Italian & Clement VII > French.
How Did The Great Schism Come To An End?
The council of constance met trying to end the Great Schism in 1414. in 1417 the council named a new pope named Martin V who became the only pope after the Holy Roman Emperor and the council forced the other two to resign.
In the form of people coming together to listen to scholars give lectures. Usually wealthy sons attended these meetings and they formed in or near cities. Oxford (In England) or Sorbonne (Paris) being two examples of early universities.
Why Did Peasants Move To Towns?
Freedom and more economic opportunities. After serfs lived in a town for a year and a day they became free people. Towns were located near trading routes, but they had no sewage systems and were overcrowded. Also, universities began to develop in towns.
The Bubonic Plague Or Black Death
The plague started in Asia and was spread around the world from fleas on rats that were commonly on cargo ships which traveled through many trading routes. Killed 40k out of 90k in Europe.
Symptoms Of The Bubonic Plague
High Fever, chills, tingling sensation, body turning black, and smelling body because the plague caused it to decay.
Hundred Years' War
War was for the french throne, and the french won driving England out of France entirely. Used the english longbow in this war which penetrated armor, and move very fast. Joan Of Arc led the french through this war leading them to victory. Early english leaders ruled France and England.
Created to target the large jewish population. A tribunal held at the church to suppress heretics, people whose beliefs differed from Christian teachings. Accused people could be tortured until confession, then still burned at the stake.
All Spanish Muslims and Jews were driven from Spain.
The long effort to drive the Muslims and Jews out of Spain, who had controlled most of the country until the 1100's. Happened under Isabella & Ferdinand's rule.
The selling or buying of a position in a Christian church. Usually by a bishop.
Led the Muslims in the 2nd crusade, invaded Palestine in 1187, and took Jerusalem. Led the Muslims to a victory.
Why Did The Renaissance Start In Italy?
Thriving cities, a wealthy merchant class, home to the classical heritage of ancient Greece and Rome, and because England & France were fighting the Hundred Year's War.
Church In The Middle Ages Vs. Church In The Renaissance
In the middle ages life revolved around the church and what it preached, in the renaissance church became more secular.
A reference to non-religious beliefs or activity.
A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Classical education such as history, literature, and philosophy.
Made books more affordable due to mass production, allowed new ideas to spread (problems with the church), led to the catholic church no longer being in control of the written word, more could read the bible because people started to rewrite them in vernacular.
Patrons Of The Art
People who beautified Rome and other cities by spending huge amounts of money on art, you obviously had to be wealthy to be one of these.
Renaissance Men Characteristics
Charming, witty, and well educated in the classics. He should dance, sing, play music, and write poetry. He should also be a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman.
Many artists used vivid colors, landscape, royalty, luxurious surroundings, religion, perspective, realism, light + shadow, frescoes, architecture, nudity, education, and secularism to craft their paintings.
Technique that shows three dimensions on a flat surface.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Painted Mona Lisa, and The Last Supper. Used great powers of observation and imagination and applied them to his art. Filled his canvases with plants, animals, fossils, and human figures with extremely accurate anatomy. Used a lot of Light + Shadow. Interested in how things worked, filled his notebooks with several observations and sketches of new inventions. Painted/sculpted personality through facial expressions.
Sculptor, poet, architect, and painter. He used a realistic style when depicting the human body. Created the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, the statue La Pieta, and the marble David, and the dome of St.Peter's Basilica. Last Name was Buonartti. Used the Old Testament as inspiration. Often gloomy and restless.
Examined the perfect conduct of human beings. Offered suggestions on how to gain power and keep it through strength, shrewdness, and trickiness. Also, he wrote The Prince, a political guide book that said in the real world of power and politics, leaders must mislead the people and lie to his opponents.
Wrote a book called Utopia in 1516.
A imaginary land/ perfect society described by Thomas Moore in his book Utopia, an ideal place. Because there was little greed in this world, Utopians had little use for money. Greed, Corruption, and war had been weeded out of this society.
Used rich colors and vivid details to portray large large numbers of people in everyday actions such as weddings, dances, and harvests. Illustrated proverbs and morals of peasant life. Painted Peasant Wedding.
Wrote Hamlet, a Midsummer Night's Dream, The Taming Of The Shrew, and Romeo & Juliet- tragedies and comedies about human emotion.
Wrote novels called The Inferno and Divine Comedy in the vernacular, his native language of Italian.
Catholic Church Problems
Critics claimed that the church's leaders were corrupt, Merchants and others resented having to pay taxes to the church, Many leaders of the church were becoming secular, Popes were getting married and having kids, Popes began to become Patrons Of The Art, and Monks & Priests were uneducated.
Change in Religion. Led to the start of many new religions.
Martin Luther was a teacher & a monk before the Reformation happened. He taught Scripture at the University of Wittenburg in Saxony. He got angry at Johann Tetzel for selling indulgences and saying that they will bring you and your loved/dead ones to heaven. Tetzel was raising money to rebuild St. Peter's Cathedral.
What Did Martin Luther Do?
He nailed 95 Complaints to the door of his church that were handwritten. He was excommunicated, and put on trial for being a heretic. Never took back his word and luckily saved by Prince Frederick Of Saxony.
What Martin Luther's 3 Main Ideas?
#1: People could go to heaven by believing in all of God's gifts and actions.
#2: Everything learned at the church should be directly based off the bible. Popes and church traditions were false authorities.
#3: All believers of God are equal in Faith.
A Padron, one who released a sinner from performing the penalty that a priest imposed for sins (An Official Forgiveness Paper). Said that if you buy one for your loved ones they will go to heaven automatically, went on for a while because the bible had no information on it.
Peace Of Ausberg
A religious settlement that gave each prince/ruler the ability/power to decide the religion of his state. This ended the german peasants rebellions.
Became king of England in 1509, he was a devout catholic who broke english ties with the Roman Catholic Church because of political & personal reasons. Named "Defender Of The Faith" by the pope for going against Luther's ideas. He was scared that another war would start if he didn't have a son as his heir so he tried to divorce his first wife Catherine Of Aragon under the pope's rule. Had 6 wives.
What Happened When Henry Asked The Pope To Divorce His Wife?
The pope did not let him so he created The Reformation Parliament which asked Parliament to pass laws that ended the pope's power, it worked.
What Was Henry Doing While Trying To Divorce Catherine Of Aragon?
Having a secret affair with another woman named Anne Boleyn. He then married her.
Combined Protestantism & Catholicism. Under this church the laws were combined to please everyone. Protestants>>> priests could marry, deliver sermons in english, and Catholics>>> you could kneel, rich robes, and gold crucifixes were worn by priests.
Daughter of Henry & Anne Boleyn, inherited the throne after her half sister Mary in 1558 when she died. Brought England back to the Protestant/Anglican Church. Vowed never to get married because of her parents.
A french follower of Luther. Created Calvinism which expressed ideas about God, Salvation, and human nature. Created a book called The Institutes Of Christian Religion which promoted a unique relationship between between people and God.
Very strict, everyone had to attend religious school, nobody could wear bright clothing or play card games. If someone broke these rules they could be imprisoned, and excommunicated. Taught that men & woman are sinful and cannot reach salvation.
Under calvinism, only god knows who will be saved.
Scottish preacher who made Calvinism the official religion of Scotland. Created a religion called Presbyterianism, under this religion each community/church was governed by laymen called elders or presbyters. His religion was a laid back type of Calvinism, laymen = respected members of the society.
Christians who believed that adults should be baptised again, when they are old enough to make their own decisions. Develops into Mennonites & Amish Faith, eventually the Quaker & Baptists. Taught that church and state should be separate, refused to fight in war, shared all their personal possessions.
Catholic Counter Reformation
While Protestant churches won many followers, millions remained true to Catholicism. Helping Catholics remain loyal was a movement within the catholic church to reform itself is called the Catholic Counter Reformation. Ignatius Of Loyola (founded new religious orders) and the two popes (Paul III & Paul IV) played a huge role in this movement.
Pope Paul III's Meeting / Council Of Trent
Decided on three doctrines:
#1: The church's interpretation of the bible was final. Any christian who substituted his or her own interpretation was considered a heretic.
#2: Christians need faith and good works for salvation. They were not saved by faith alone, as luther argued.
#3: The bible and church tradition were equally powerful authorities for guiding christian life.
#4: Indulgences were valid expressions of Faith.
Pope Paul VI
Had officials draw up a list of books considered dangerous to the catholic faith, known as The Index Of Forbidden Books,The catholic bishops throughout Europe were ordered to gather up the offensive books, including protestant bibles, and burn them.
Change In Science.
Reasoned that the stars, the earth, and other planets revolved around the sun (heliocentric theory). Produced a book called "On The Revolutions Of The Heavenly Body". Didn't publish this book until his death, he was polish.
The stars, the earth, and other planets revolved around the sun.
The stars, planets, and the sun revolved around the earth.
Danish scientist who studied Brache's work, he was his assistant. Concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion, one law showed that planets revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits instead of circles. His laws showed that Copernicus's ideas were correct.
Built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens in 1609 (first one). Published "Starry Messenger" which was a book about astronomical observation. Noted that the earth's moon had a rough, uneven surface. Came up with the Theory Of Gravity, Law Of The Pendulum, and made laws of motion. Supported copernicus's thoughts. Italian
Scientific Method (Scientific Revolution)
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. First, it begins with a problem or question, then scientists form a hypothesis, experiment, analyze and interpret the data and then use that data for their final conclusion.
Sir Francis Bacon
Urged people to experiment and then draw conclusions, this approach is called Empiricism. Attacked medieval scholars for relying on Aristotle's thoughts. He said that practical knowledge can improve someone's life. He was English.
Developed analytical geometry, which linked geometry and algebra together. Provided an important tool for the scientific revolution. Used analytical geometry to prove theories and he said that everything should be doubted unless proven by reason. French.
Discovered that all physical objects were affected equally by the same forces (theory of motion). Published "Mathematics Principles Of Natural Philosophy". Theory of Universal Gravitation, every object has attraction to another object. He was english.
Mercator Map Vs. The Peters Map
Peters Map: The continents near the equator are stretched out vertically. Also, this map counteracts the the image of the developing world as much "smaller" than the civilized world.
Mercator Map: Enlarges areas at the poles to create straight lines of constant bearing, or geographic direction.
Which Map Should We Rely On?
Peter's projection because it is a non-bias map.
Africa's earliest people, nomadic peoples, travel in small bands of a few related families, woman and children gathered berries and roots, men hunted with spears and bows and arrows, San of the Kalahari desert, and the BaMbuti of the rain forests of Congo.
Domesticated and raised a variety of animals for food, the kept goats, cattle, and sheep. They drove their animals to find water and good pastures for grazing during the dry season. Millions of modern africans are still herders. Masai of Tanzania and Southern Kenya.
Emergence Of Agriculture
Between 6000 and 8000 B.C. the Sahara received increased rainfall and turned into a savanna. In 6000 B.C the savanna dried up again, many moved east into the Nile Valley and south into West Africa to survive. Agriculture began in 6000 B.C when farmers started to grow grain on savanna's and began to raise cattle.
Change In African Way Of Life
The emergence of Agriculture allowed for longer lives and an increased birthrate because people could grow their own food, and allowed people to build permanent shelters for them and their families. Division of labor happened because the increase of food supplies. Complex settlements of people required the formation of government, and as strong groups of people moved to extend their lands and conquer weaker settlements they centralized their power and their governments.
Early African Family Structures
Besides parents and children, this primary group consisted of grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins in an extended family. Families that shared common ancestors sometimes formed groups called clans.
Early African Religion
All local religions involved a belief in one creator, or god. Included elements of Animism. Shared a belief system to help understand and organize information about their world. Spirits take form of the souls of their dead ancestors.
A religion in which spirits play a important role in regulating daily life. Animists believe spirit is present in all life and forces.
Early African Oral Traditions
Storytellers continued the history and literature of a culture considering few africans could write. Storytellers were called griots which were mostly in western Africa. Griots passed stories from parent to child.
Writing: called Ge'ez, brought by early Arab inhabitants. Besides Egypt they were the only ancient african civilization to have developed a written language.
Coins: Minted their own coins, made of bronze, silver, and gold. In-printed with the words "May the country be satisfied".
Farming: Created a new method of agriculture, and terrace farming (helped soil retain water). Allowed for increase of productivity of their land.
Architecture: They put no mortar on the stones used to build vast royal palaces and public buildings. Stele was built to celebrate Aksum's achievements.
Had great stone walls which were there to impress visitors and for defense. Zimbabwe means "Stone Houses" because their ruins consist of stone houses which housed their rulers. Well suited to farming and cattle raising. They gained control of trading routes and taxed traders who used their trading routes. Later abandoned and nobody knows why.
Founded in the 11th century by muslim reformers. With Ibn Yasin they conquered Morocco, Ghana, and Southern Spain. Marrakech became their capital city. Criticized by Ibm Tumat because they were moving away from the practice of Islam. Ibm Tumat wanted his followers to strictly follow the rules of the Koran and Islamic Law.
They were a group of berber muslims who originated in the Atlas mountains of Morocco reformers. They controlled most of Morocco, much of southern Spain, Marrakech to Tripoli, and Tunis on the Mediterranean. It united the Maghrib under one rule.
Ghana's most important trading items were gold and salt, gold miners dug (region between Niger & Senegal River) gold often and far under the surface of their land. Ghana's government made sure all oversee traders weighed goods fairly and did business according to law, and taxed it. Ghana's kings could own Gold Nuggets and could call up a huge army. Ghana converted to Islam and Muslim merchants and teachers helped spread their faith. By the end of the 11th Century, Muslim advisors were helping the King run his kingdom.
Small islands in Swamps and shallow lakes by stacking layers of vegetation, dirt, and mud. Then they planted crops on top of the island soil which provided irrigation.
Each city was independent and ruled by a god-king. Trade linked the cities. Polytheistic. Sometimes cut themselves to offer blood to the gods in sacrifice, and sometimes they killed enemies and sacrificed them.
A book that the Mayans recorded events in.
Made up of 800 symbols known as glyphs.
Included the idea of zero.
Mayan Social Class
Best warriors and priests >>> merchants and craftworkers >>> peasant farmers (majority of the people).
Why Did The Mayan Civilization Decline?
Historians do not know.
Controlled 38 provinces. Capital city was Tenochitlan which was built on a island in a lake. Contained around 200,000 people. Empire based on military conquest and collecting tribute from conquered peoples. <<< Important.
"City Of The Gods" Had as many as 125,000 people living there at its peak. Abandoned in 750, and the reasons are not clear.
Hard green or black rock used to make weapons. Had a surplus amount of this in Teotihuacan.
The Triple Alliance
Texacaco, Tiacopen, and two other city-states. Became the leading power of the valley of Mexico.
Emperor >>> Military Leaders >>> Priests >>> Merchants, Craft Workers, Soldiers, And Farmers >>> Slaves.
Led by priests who sacrificed human blood to make sure that the sun would rise everyday. People taken captive in war were sacrificed, the constant need for human blood pushed the Aztecs to fight their neighbors. For the Sun God.
Aztec Ruler, ordered even more people from the lands of their conquered people to be handed over for sacrifices, these people finally rebelled against the Aztecs. In the midst of this war, the Spanish arrived and made contact with the Aztecs for the first time, some say the Spanish as the arrival of the legendary Queztacoatl.
Arose in the Andes of South America. It was built on foundations made by several earlier cultures. Inca was the name of the original ruling family. Had a complex network of roads. Built all government buildings in the same style. Gov. controlled the economy. Never developed a system of writing.
Their ruler was related to the sun god who would bring wealth and power to them.
Only men from eleven noble families could serve as king. When rulers died they were mummified and worshipped by the people. Each ruler also kept all the riches that they had won during life. This forced each new ruler to want more land to get his own riches. Let local rulers stay in place when they conquered a territory as long as the conquered people met inca demands.
Under his reign he allowed new peoples to enter his empire peacefully as long as they swore loyalty to the emperor.
Small groups of people called Ayllu worked together for the common good. Example: they built irrigation ditches together. Families were put into groups of 10, 100, and 1,000 all led by a chief.
A payment of labor in which adult workers spent some days each year working for the state.
Common language- the inca tongue.
How was Inca Land Divided?
Government land, religious land, and community land.
Believed in fewer gods than the peoples in mexico. MIG: The creator god and the sun god. Cuzco: most important religious center, it was decorated with gold and other precious objects.
When king Huayna Capac died civil war broke out and the spanish conquered them.
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