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Terms in this set (33)
What is a motivation?
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
What do motivations arise from?
interplay between nature and nurture
What are the 4 perspectives for viewing motivated behaviors?
instinct theory, drive-reduction theory, arousal theory, hierarchy of needs
What is an instinct?
a complex, unlearned behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species
What is evolutionary psychology's underlying assumption?
genes predispose species typical behavior
What is the drive-reduction theory?
the idea that a physiological need creates an aorused tension state that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
When a phsyiological need increases, so does what?
a psychological drive
What is a drive?
an aroused, motivated state
What is homeostasis?
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of blood chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
Drive-reduction motivation arises from what?
need (food, water)---> ____ -----> ______
drive (hunger, thirst); drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking)
In addition to being pushed to reduce drives, we are also pulled by what?
What is an incentive?
a positive or negative environemntal stimulus that motivates behavior
Give an example of something that can motivate our behavior
smell of good food
What is the optimum arousal theory?
holds that some motivated behaviors increae arousal
Give an example of someone who is driven by optimum arousal theory
someone who wants to climb Mount Everest even though it doesn't satisfy a biological need
Those who enjoy high arousal are known as
Human motivation, accroding to optimum arousal theory, aims not to eliminate arousal but to what?
seek optimum levels of arousal; experience stimulation
With too much stimulation we experience what?
What is the Yerkes-Dodson law?
the principle that performance increases with arousal only up to a point, and then beyond that performance decreases
Optimal arousal also depends on the _____.
More difficult tasks require what kind of arousal for optimum performance?
Who came up with the hierarchy of needs?
What is the hierarchy of needs?
pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active
List the 6 levels in the pyramid of hierarchy of needs from bottom to top and give example
physiological needs-hunger and thirst; safety needs-need to feel safe and organized; belongingness and love needs-need to be loved and accepted; esteem needs-need for self-esteem and respect from others; self-actualization needs-need to live up to our potential; self-transcendence needs-need to find meaning and identity beyond oneself
What is a strength of the instict theory and evolutionary psychology?
evolutionary psychology helps explain bheavioral similarities due to adaptatins from our ancestral past
What is a weakness of the instict theory and evolutionary psychology?
instinct theory explains animal behavior better than human behavior because humans don't have many true instincts
What is a strength of the drive-reduction theory?
explains our motivation to reduce arousal by meeting basic needs like hunger and thirst
What is a weakness of the drive-reduction theory?
doesn't explain why some motivated behaviors increase arousal
What is a strength of the optimal arousal theory?
explains that motivated behaviors may decrease or increase arousal
What is a weakness of the optimal arousal theory?
doesn't explain our motivation to address our more complex social needs
What is a strength of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
incorporates idea that we have various levels of needs
What is a weakness of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
order of needs may change in certain circumstances
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