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Plessy v. Ferguson

a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal.

De facto segregation

segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law

Sweatt cases

Instead of providing an equal facility, Texas built a law school in the basement of a building for a black student. The Court ruled that in addition to equal materials, the "Texas State University for Negroes" lacked "the reputation of the faculty, experiance of administration, position and influence of alumni, standing in the community, traditions and prestige" which made it impossible for the state to provide an equal education in a segregated setting.(1946)

Brown v. Board

(1954) the Supreme Court rule that separate but equal was unconstitutional

JoAnn Robinson

paved the way in Montgomery with Woman's Political Caucus helped in organizing bus boycott


Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success

"separate, but equal"

Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.

Jim Crow laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965


National Association for the Advancement of Colored People


Congress of racial equality . an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality

James Farmer

Civil rights leader who founded the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

Thurgood Marshall

American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.

Southern Manifesto

The manifesto was a document written by legislators opposed to integration. Most of the signatures came from Southern Democrats, showing that they would stand in the way of integration, leading to another split/shift in the Democratic Party.

E.D. Nixon

(1899-1987) Headed the Alabama branch of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters during the 1920's and 1930's; served as president of the Montgomery branch of the NAACP from 1939-1951; instrumental in organizing the Montgomery Bus Boycott

Orval Faubus

He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School

Rosa Parks

refused to give up her seat on a bus and was arrested in 1955

MLK, Jr.

United States charismatic civil rights leader and Baptist minister who campaigned against the segregation of African Americans

Little Rock

(DDE) , Governor Faubus ordered the Arkansas National Guard to surround Central High School to keep the nine students from entering the school, because he believed black and whites should be segregated, despite Federal laws on integration. President Dwight D. Eisenhower ordered the 101st Airborne Division to keep them safe

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