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Q2 APUSH key terms and people Ch. THIRTEEN
Terms in this set (21)
Tariff of Abominations
Noteworthy for its unprecedentedly high duties on imports. Southerners vehemently opposed the tariff, arguing that it hurt southern farmers, who did not enjoy the protection of tariffs but were forced to pay higher prices for manufactures.
Showdown between President Andrew Jackson and the South Carolina legislature, which declared the 1832 tariff null and void in the state and threatened secession if the federal government tried to collect duties. It was resolved by a compromise negotiated by Henry Clay in 1833.
Passed by Congress alongside the compromise Tariff of 1833, it authorized the president to use the military to collect federal tariff duties.
Trail of Tears
Forced march of fifteen thousand Cherokee Indians from their Georgia and Alabama homes to Indian Territory. Some four thousand Cherokees died on the arduous journey.
Popular term for pro-Jackson state banks that received the bulk of federal deposits when Andrew Jackson moved to dismantle the Bank of the United States in 1833.
U.S. Treasury decree requiring that all public lands be purchased with "hard," or metallic, currency. Issued after small state banks flooded the market with unreliable paper currency, fueling land speculation in the West.
panic of 1837
Economic crisis triggered by bank failures, elevated grain prices, and Andrew Jackson's efforts to curb overspeculation on western lands and transportation improvements. In response, President Martin Van Buren proposed the "Divorce Bill," which pulled treasury funds out of the banking system altogether, contracting the credit supply.
John Quincy Adams
He served as secretary of state under James Monroe before becoming the sixth president of the United States. A strong advocate of national finance and improvement, he faced opposition from states' rights advocates in the South and West. His controversial election-the allegedly "corrupt bargain" of 1824-and his lack of political acumen further hampered his presidential agenda.
Secretary of state and U.S. senator from Kentucky, he was known as the "Great Compromiser," helping to negotiate the Missouri Compromise in 1820, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, and the Compromise of 1850. As a National Republican, later Whig, he advocated a strong national agenda of internal improvements and protective tariffs, known as the American System.
War hero, congressman, and seventh president of the United States. A Democrat, he ushered in a new era in American politics, advocating white manhood suffrage and cementing party loyalties through the spoils system. As president, he dismantled the Bank of the United States, asserted federal supremacy in the nullification crisis, and oversaw the harsh policy of Indian removal in the South.
John C. Calhoun
Vice president under Andrew Jackson, he became a U.S. senator from South Carolina after a public break with the administration. A fierce supporter of states' rights, he advocated South Carolina's position during the nullification crisis. In the 1840s and 1850s, he staunchly defended slavery, accusing free-state northerners of conspiring to free the slaves.
Sauk war chief who led the Sauk and Fox resistance against eviction under the Indian Removal Act in Illinois and Wisconsin. Brutally crushed by American forces, he surrendered in 1832 and lived out his days on a reservation in Iowa.
Banker, financier, and president of the Second Bank of the United States from 1822 until the bank's charter expired in 1836.
Lawyer, congressman, and secretary of state, he teamed up with Henry Clay in the Bank War against Andrew Jackson in 1832. Hoping to avoid sectional conflict, he opposed the annexation of Texas but later urged the North to support the Compromise of 1850.
Martin Van Buren
Jacksonian Democrat who became the eighth president of the United States after serving as vice president during Andrew Jackson's second term. As president, he presided over the "hard times" wrought by the Panic of 1837, clinging to Jackson's monetary policies and rejecting federal intervention in the economy.
American who established the first major Anglo settlements in Texas under an agreement with the Mexican government. Though loyal to Mexico, he advocated for local Texans' rights, particularly the right to bring slaves into the region. Briefly imprisoned by Santa Anna for inciting rebellion, he returned to Texas in 1836 to serve as secretary of state of the newly independent republic until his death later that year.
President of the republic of Texas and U.S. senator, he led Texas to independence in 1836 as commander in chief of the Texas army. As president of the republic, he unsuccessfully sought annexation into the United States. Once Texas officially joined the Union in 1845, he was elected to the U.S. Senate, later returning to serve as governor of Texas until 1861, when he was removed from office for refusing to take an oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
Mexican general, president, and dictator who opposed Texas's independence and later led the Mexican army in the war against the United States.
William Henry Harrison
Hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe and ninth president of the United States. He, a Whig, won the 1840 election on a "Log Cabin and Hard Cider" campaign, which played up his credentials as a backwoods westerner and Indian fighter. He died of pneumonia just four weeks after his inauguration.
Alleged deal between presidential candidates John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay to throw the election, to be decided by the House of Representatives, in Adams's favor. Though never proven, the accusation became the rallying cry for supporters of Andrew Jackson, who had actually garnered a plurality of the popular vote in 1824.
Policy of rewarding political supporters with public office, first widely employed at the federal level by Andrew Jackson. The practice was widely abused by unscrupulous office seekers, but it also helped cement party loyalty in the emerging two-party system.