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Q2 APUSH key terms and people Ch. FIFTEEN
Terms in this set (20)
Eighteenth-century religious doctrine that emphasized reasoned moral behavior and the scientific pursuit of knowledge. Most Deists rejected biblical inerrancy and the divinity of Christ, but they did believe that a Supreme Being created the universe.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival characterized by emotional mass "camp meetings" and widespread conversion. Brought about a democratization of religion as a multiplicity of denominations vied for members.
Popular name for western New York, a region particularly swept up in the religious fervor of the Second Great Awakening.
Religious followers of Joseph Smith, who founded a communal, oligarchic religious order in the 1830s, officially known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. Mormons, facing deep hostility from their non-Mormon neighbors, eventually migrated west and established a flourishing settlement in the Utah desert.
(From the Greek name for the ancient Athenian school where Aristotle taught.) Public lecture hall that hosted speakers on topics ranging from science to moral philosophy. Part of a broader flourishing of higher education in the mid-nineteenth century.
American Temperance Society
Founded in Boston in 1826 as part of a growing effort of nineteenth-century reformers to limit alcohol consumption.
Maine Law of 1851
Prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol. A dozen other states followed Maine's lead, though most statutes proved ineffective and were repealed within a decade.
Called "Shakers" for their lively dance worship, they emphasized simple, communal living and were all expected to practice celibacy. First transplanted to America from England by Mother Ann Lee, the Shakers counted six thousand members by 1840, though by the 1940s the movement had largely died out.
Literary and intellectual movement that emphasized individualism and self-reliance, predicated upon a belief that each person possesses an "inner light" that can point the way to truth and direct contact with God.
Methodist revivalist who traversed the frontier from Tennessee to Illinois in the first decades of the nineteenth century, preaching against slavery and alcohol and calling on sinners to repent.
Charles Grandison Finney
One of the leading revival preachers during the Second Great Awakening, he presided over mass camp meetings throughout New York State, championing temperance and abolition and urging women to play a greater role in religious life.
Second president of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, he led his Mormon followers to Salt Lake City, Utah, after Joseph Smith's death. Under his discipline and guidance, the Utah settlement prospered, and the church expanded to include over 100,000 members by his death in 1877.
Secretary of the Massachusetts Board of Education and a champion of public education who advocated more and better schoolhouses, longer terms, better pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum.
New England teacher-author and champion of mental health reform, she assembled damning reports on insane asylums and petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to improve conditions.
Prominent Quaker and abolitionist, she became a champion for women's rights after she and her fellow female delegates were not seated at the World Anti-Slavery Convention of 1840 in London. Along with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she organized the first Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls in 1848
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Abolitionist and woman suffragist, she organized the first Woman's Rights Convention near her home in Seneca Falls, New York, in 1848. After the Civil War, she urged Congress to include women in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments, despite urgings from Frederick Douglass to let freedmen have their hour. In 1869, she, along with Susan B. Anthony, founded the National Woman Suffrage Association to lobby for a constitutional amendment granting women the vote.
Susan B. Anthony
Reformer and woman suffragist, Anthony, with long-time friend Elizabeth Cady Stanton, advocated for temperance and women's rights in New York State, established the abolitionist Women's Loyal League during the Civil War, and founded the National Woman Suffrage Association in 1869 to lobby for a constitutional amendment giving women the vote.
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Boston-born scholar and leading American transcendentalist whose essays, most notably "Self-Reliance," stressed individualism, self-improvement, optimism, and freedom.
Henry David Thoreau
American transcendentalist and author of Walden: Or Life in the Woods. A committed idealist and abolitionist, he advocated civil disobedience, spending a night in jail for refusing to pay a poll tax to a government that supported slavery.
Scottish-born textile manufacturer and founder of New Harmony, a short-lived communal society of about a thousand people in Indiana.